Cerebral Palsy Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 22, 2018
  • Author: Hoda Z Abdel-Hamid, MD; Chief Editor: Amy Kao, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is cerebral palsy?

What is included in the physical exam for cerebral palsy?

What are the signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of EEG and EMG in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy?

Which medications are used in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is cerebral palsy?

How is cerebral palsy classified?

What are the types of cerebral palsy?

How is cerebral palsy functionally classified?

What measures can be taken in the neonatal period to reduce the risk for cerebral palsy?

What is the anatomy of cerebral palsy?

What are major events in human brain development relevant to cerebral palsy?

What is the role of brain injury in the pathophysiology of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of cerebral vasculature in the pathophysiology of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of periventricular leukomalacia in the pathophysiology of cerebral palsy?

How is periventricular hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage classified in cerebral palsy?

What is the pathophysiology of cerebral palsy in term infants?

What causes cerebral palsy?

What maternal and prenatal risk factors statistically correlate with cerebral palsy?

What are the prenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy?

What are the perinatal risk factors for cerebral palsy?

What is the role of birth asphyxia in the etiology of cerebral palsy?

What are the postnatal risk factors for cerebral palsy?

What causes spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy?

What causes spastic diplegic cerebral palsy?

What causes spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy?

What causes dyskinetic (extrapyramidal) cerebral palsy?

What is the prevalence of cerebral palsy?

What is the prognosis of cerebral palsy?

Which systems are affected by cerebral palsy complications?

What are the GI and nutritional complications of cerebral palsy?

What are the possible dental complications of cerebral palsy?

What are the possible respiratory complications of cerebral palsy?

What are the possible neurologic complications of cerebral palsy?

What is the prevalence of comorbid cerebral palsy and epilepsy?

What are the possible cognitive, psychologic and behavioral complications of cerebral palsy?

What should be included in patient education about cerebral palsy?

Presentation

What is included in the developmental history for the diagnosis of cerebral palsy?

What are the AAN guidelines for cerebral palsy screening?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of cerebral palsy?

What is included in the prenatal history for the diagnosis of cerebral palsy?

What is the included in the perinatal history for the diagnosis of cerebral palsy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of cerebral palsy?

What is included in the physical exam for suspected cerebral palsy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of spastic (pyramidal) cerebral palsy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of dyskinetic (extrapyramidal) cerebral palsy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of spastic diplegic cerebral palsy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy?

DDX

How is cerebral palsy diagnosed?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of cerebral palsy?

What are the differential diagnoses for Cerebral Palsy?

Workup

What are the AAN guidelines for lab testing and imaging studies in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of lab tests in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of EEG in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of EMG in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy?

Treatment

How is cerebral palsy managed?

How are abnormal movements treated in cerebral palsy?

What is the role of botulinum toxin in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of phenol intramuscular neurolysis in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of antiparkinsonian medications in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of anticonvulsant medications in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What are the AAN-CNS treatment guidelines for spasticity in cerebral palsy?

Which surgical interventions are used in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of intrathecal baclofen pump insertion in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of selective dorsal rhizotomy in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of stereotactic basal ganglia in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of orthopedic surgery in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What are the medicolegal issues in cerebral palsy?

Which specialists treat cerebral palsy?

What is the role of a physiatrist in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of orthopedic surgeons in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of neurologists and neurosurgeons in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of geneticists in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of a gastroenterologist, nutritionist, and feeding/swallowing team in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of pulmonologists in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

What is the role of a learning disability team in the treatment of cerebral palsy?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with cerebral palsy?

What is included in long-term monitoring of patients with cerebral palsy?

Medications

What is the goal of drug treatment for cerebral palsy?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha2 Adrenergic Agonist Agents are used in the treatment of Cerebral Palsy?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsant Agents are used in the treatment of Cerebral Palsy?

Which medications in the drug class Dopamine Prodrugs are used in the treatment of Cerebral Palsy?

Which medications in the drug class Anticholinergic Agents are used in the treatment of Cerebral Palsy?

Which medications in the drug class Benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of Cerebral Palsy?

Which medications in the drug class Muscle relaxants are used in the treatment of Cerebral Palsy?

Which medications in the drug class Neuromuscular Blockers, Botulinum Toxins are used in the treatment of Cerebral Palsy?