Pediatric Guillain-Barre Syndrome Medication

Updated: Nov 14, 2019
  • Author: Marc P DiFazio, MD; Chief Editor: George I Jallo, MD  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy are to reduce morbidity and prevent complications. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the predominant choice in childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). DVT prophylaxis should be initiated and stress gastritis prophylaxis with H2 blockers (eg, ranitidine) may be beneficial. A bowel routine should also be instituted, as gastroparesis secondary to autonomic dysfunction and/or extended bed rest is not uncommon.

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Blood products

Class Summary

IVIG is an effective treatment of autoimmune neuropathies in general. It can reduce duration of hospitalization as well as need or duration for mechanical ventilation.

IVIG (Gammagard, Gamimune)

Features relevant to efficacy may include neutralization of circulating myelin antibodies through anti-idiotypic antibodies; down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, including interferon-gamma; blockade of Fc receptors on macrophages; suppression of inducer T and B cells and augmentation of suppressor T cells; blockade of complement cascade; promotion of remyelination; and a 10% increase in CSF IgG.

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Histamine2-Receptor Antagonists

Class Summary

H2-receptor antagonists are reversible competitive blockers of histamines at the H2 receptors, particularly those in the gastric parietal cells, where they inhibit acid secretion. The H2 antagonists are highly selective, do not affect the H1 receptors, and are not anticholinergic agents.

Cimetidine (Tagamet)

Cimetidine inhibits histamine at H2 receptors of gastric parietal cells, which results in reduced gastric acid secretion, gastric volume, and hydrogen concentrations.

Ranitidine (Zantac)

Ranitidine inhibits histamine stimulation of the H2 receptor in gastric parietal cells, which, in turn, reduces gastric acid secretion, gastric volume, and hydrogen ion concentrations.

Famotidine (Pepcid)

Famotidine competitively inhibits histamine at H2 receptor of gastric parietal cells, resulting in reduced gastric acid secretion, gastric volume, and hydrogen ion concentrations.

Nizatidine (Axid)

Nizatidine competitively inhibits histamine at the H2 receptor of the gastric parietal cells, resulting in reduced gastric acid secretion, gastric volume, and reduced hydrogen concentrations.

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