Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 27, 2017
  • Author: David Y Ko, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What are generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS)?

Which epilepsy syndromes are associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

How are generalized tonic-clonic seizures diagnosed and treated?

Which mechanisms initiate generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the pathophysiology of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the role of the brainstem in the pathogenesis of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What causes generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the prevalence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the morbidity associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What are the mortality rates for generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What are sources of patient education for generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

Which physical findings are characteristic of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What are the signs and symptoms of the tonic phase of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What are the signs and symptoms of the clonic phase of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What are the signs and symptoms of the postictal state of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What are the possible complications of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What are the differential diagnoses for Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures?

Workup

Which tests are performed in the workup of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

Which interictal EEG findings suggest generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

Which ictal EEG findings suggest generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

Which postictal EEG findings suggest generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the role of prolactin studies in the workup of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the role of PET scanning in the workup of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the role of genetic testing in the workup of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the role of ambulatory video EEG in the workup of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

Treatment

How are generalized tonic-clonic seizures treated?

What is the role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What are possible adverse effects of anticonvulsants for the treatment of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the role of vagus nerve stimulation in the treatment of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

What is the role of ketogenic diet in the treatment of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

Which surgical procedures are used in the treatment of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

Medications

What are goals of drug treatment for generalized tonic-clonic seizures?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsant Agents are used in the treatment of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures?