Restless Legs Syndrome Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 22, 2017
  • Author: Ali M Bozorg, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the IRLSSG diagnostic criteria for restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

How is periodic leg movements of sleep (PLMS) characterized in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are signs and symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What is the role of iron level measurement in the workup of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

Which lab tests should be performed when a secondary cause of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is suspected?

What is the role of electrodiagnostic testing and polysomnography in the workup of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the pharmacologic therapy options in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the nonpharmacologic treatment options for restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What is restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

In which age group is restless legs syndrome (RLS) most often diagnosed?

Which factors exacerbate the sensations of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the IRLSSG diagnostic criteria for restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the DSM-5 and ICSD-2 diagnostic criteria for restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What is the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the causes of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What is the etiology of familial restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the common secondary causes of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the less common causes of secondary restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What is the etiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) during pregnancy?

What is the incidence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with end-stage renal disease?

Which medications cause or exacerbate the symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What is the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in the US and globally?

How does the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) vary among age groups?

How does the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) vary between males and females and among races?

What is the progression of the symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the possible complications of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movements of sleep (PLMS)?

What education should be given to patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

Presentation

What is the basis for a diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and what symptoms do patients typically report?

What is the prevalence of periodic leg movements of sleep (PLMS) in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

When is treatment of periodic leg movements of sleep (PLMS) indicated in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are non-diagnostic symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What is required for a definite diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in children?

What is included in the physical exam for restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

How is akathisia differentiated from restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

How is neuropathy differentiated from restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

How are nocturnal leg cramps differentiated from restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

How are painful legs and moving toes differentiated from restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

How is vascular disease differentiated from restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Restless Legs Syndrome?

Workup

When is iron level testing indicated in the workup of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

How is augmentation of restless legs syndrome (RLS) defined?

Which lab tests are performed when a secondary cause of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is suspected?

Which studies are performed to exclude polyneuropathy or radiculopathy in the workup of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What is the indication for a polysomnography (PSG) in the workup of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

Treatment

When is treatment indicated for restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What is the role of vibratory counterstimulation (Relaxis) in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are considerations for the use of pharmacotherapy in restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What medications are used in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the IRLSSG guidelines for long-term pharmacologic treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What is the role of supplemental iron therapy in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

Are systemic corticosteroids and yokukansan effective in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the FDA-approved medications in the treatment of children with restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the nonpharmacologic treatment options for restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

Guidelines

Which organizations have released guidelines for the management of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

What are the IRLSSG recommendations for the long-term treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

According to the IRLSSG guidelines, what are the indications for alpha2-delta calcium-channel ligand in the treatment of restless leg syndrome (RLS)?

According to the IRLSSG guidelines, when are dopamine-receptor agonists indicated for initial treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

According to the IRLSSG guidelines, how are patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) who are treated with dopaminergic agents monitored and when should multidrug therapy be considered?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS)?

Which medications in the drug class Iron Salt are used in the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha2-Adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsants, Other are used in the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Opioid Analgesics are used in the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Anxiolytics, Benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Antiparkinson Agents, Dopamine Agonists are used in the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome?