Thygeson Superficial Punctate Keratitis Medication

Updated: Feb 21, 2023
  • Author: Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
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Anti-inflammatory agents

Class Summary

These agents decrease inflammation.

Fluorometholone (FML)

Inhibits edema, fibrin deposition, capillary dilation and phagocytic migration of acute inflammatory response and capillary proliferation, collagen deposition, and scar formation. Decreases inflammation and corneal neovascularization. Suppresses migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reverses capillary permeability. Believed to act by the induction of phospholipase A-2 inhibitory proteins.

Used topically, it can elevate IOP and cause steroid-response glaucoma. In clinical studies of documented steroid responders, fluorometholone demonstrated a significantly longer average time to produce a rise in IOP than dexamethasone phosphate. In a small percentage of individuals, a significant rise in IOP occurred within 1 wk. The ultimate magnitude of the rise was equivalent.


Lubricants, ocular

Class Summary

These agents increase lubrication of the eye.

Artificial tears (Refresh Tears, Optive, Systane, Celluvisc, Murine, Refresh, Tears Naturale, GenTeal, TheraTears)

Used to increase lubrication of the eye. Contains equivalent of 0.9% NaCl and maintains ocular tonicity. Acts to stabilize and thicken precorneal tear film and prolong tear film breakup time, which occurs with dry eye states. Preparations that have hydroxymethylcellulose or dextran are more viscous and, therefore, can last longer before needing to be reapplied. Preservative-free artificial tears are preferred to avoid preservative-associated ocular reactions.



Class Summary

Cyclosporine ophthalmic drops are thought to act as a partial immunomodulator. The exact mechanism of action is not known.

Cyclosporine 0.05% (Restasis)

Used to relieve dry eyes caused by suppressed tear production secondary to ocular inflammation. Thought to act as partial immunomodulator. Exact mechanism of action is not known.