Acquired Nystagmus Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 17, 2018
  • Author: Christopher M Bardorf, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Edsel Ing, MD, MPH, FRCSC  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What is acquired nystagmus?

Which disorders can result in an acquired nystagmus?

What is the pathophysiology of vestibular nystagmus?

What is the pathophysiology of downbeat nystagmus?

What is the pathophysiology of upbeat nystagmus?

What is the pathophysiology of torsional (rotary) nystagmus?

What is the pathophysiology of pendular nystagmus?

What is the pathophysiology of horizontal nystagmus?

What is the pathophysiology of seesaw nystagmus?

What is the pathophysiology of gaze-evoked nystagmus?

What is spasmus nutans?

What is the pathophysiology of periodic alternating nystagmus?

What is the pathophysiology of abducting nystagmus of internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO)?

What are convergence retraction nystagmoid movements?

What causes opsoclonus (saccadomania) in acquired nystagmus?

What is the mortality and morbidity of acquired nystagmus?

Presentation

What is the focus of history in the evaluation of acquired nystagmus?

What are findings of the oculocephalic reflex suggestive of acquired nystagmus?

What is the role of neuro-ophthalmic exam in the evaluation of acquired nystagmus?

What are findings of the optokinetic reflex suggestive of acquired nystagmus?

What is the role of caloric reflex testing in the evaluation of acquired nystagmus?

What are the causes of seesaw nystagmus?

What are the causes of downbeat nystagmus?

What are the causes of upbeat nystagmus?

What are the causes of period alternating nystagmus?

What are the causes of pendular nystagmus?

What are the causes of spasmus nutans?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Acquired Nystagmus?

Workup

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of acquired nystagmus?

What is the role of electronystagmography in the workup of acquired nystagmus?

Treatment

What is included in the medical treatment of acquired nystagmus?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of acquired nystagmus?

Which specialists should be consulted for the treatment of acquired nystagmus?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for acquired nystagmus?

Which medications in the drug class Neuromuscular blocker agents are used in the treatment of Acquired Nystagmus?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsants are used in the treatment of Acquired Nystagmus?

Which medications in the drug class Muscle relaxants, GABA agonists are used in the treatment of Acquired Nystagmus?

Follow-up

How are patients with acquired nystagmus monitored?

What is the prognosis of acquired nystagmus after treatment?