Pseudoexotropia

Updated: Apr 06, 2016
  • Author: Barbara L Roque, MD, DPBO, FPAO; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
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Overview

Background

Pseudoexotropia is a condition in which the alignment of the eyes is straight (also known as orthotropic); however, they appear to be turned outward. [1]

See related CME at Highlights of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Annual Meeting.

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Pathophysiology

Pseudoexotropia occurs with a wide interpupillary distance or a positive angle kappa. Angle kappa is the angle formed between 2 imaginary lines: the visual axis and the pupillary axis. To construct the visual axis, extend a straight line from the viewing object through the nodal point. A straight line going through the center of the pupil and perpendicular to the corneal plane constructs the pupillary axis. Since fovea is displaced temporally, a small angle kappa (up to 5°) manifests as a nasally displaced corneal light reflex. Children may falsely appear to have an exotropia when they look to the side.

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Epidemiology

Frequency

United States

The incidence of pseudoexotropia is higher in children with a temporally dragged macula from retinopathy of prematurity.

Sex

No known sexual predilection exists.

Age

The appearance of pseudoexotropia is seen at any age.

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