Graves Disease Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 23, 2018
  • Author: Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is Graves disease?

Which other autoimmune diseases are associated with Graves disease?

What is the pathophysiology of Graves disease?

What is the role of the thyroid gland in the pathophysiology of Graves disease?

Which genes are implicated in the pathogenesis of in Graves disease?

What are the pathophysiologic mechanisms for Graves disease?

What is the prevalence of Graves disease in the US?

What is the global prevalence of Graves disease?

What are complications of Graves disease?

What is the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in Graves disease?

What is the pathogenesis of hyperthyroidism in Graves disease?

What are the cardiac complications of Graves disease?

What are the psychiatric manifestations of Graves disease?

What are the dermatologic manifestations of Graves disease?

What are the ophthalmologic manifestations of Graves disease?

What are the complications of Graves disease during pregnancy?

What are the signs and symptoms of apathetic hyperthyroidism in Graves disease?

What is the prevalence of coexisting autoimmune disorders in Graves disease?

What are the racial predilections for Graves disease?

How does the prevalence of Graves disease vary by sex?

In which age groups is Graves disease most prevalent?

What is the prognosis of Graves disease?

What is included in the patient education information for Graves disease?

Presentation

What should be the focus of the history in suspected Graves disease?

What are the classic features of Graves disease?

Which symptoms may be present in young adults of Southeast Asian descent with Graves disease?

What are the symptoms of Graves disease?

Which medical condition is most apparent in the physical findings of Graves disease?

Which physical findings are characteristic of Graves disease?

Which physical findings are diagnostic of Graves disease?

What are the common physical findings in Graves disease?

What are the ophthalmologic findings suggestive of Graves disease?

What are the endocrine symptoms in Graves disease?

Which factors increase the mortality rate for Graves disease?

Which immune mechanisms are etiologic factors in Graves disease?

Which factors influences the autoimmune process Graves disease?

What is the role of genetics in Graves disease?

What is the role of environmental factors in the etiology of Graves disease?

DDX

Which disorders should be included in the differential diagnoses for Graves disease?

What are the differential diagnoses for Graves Disease?

Workup

How are patients screened for Graves disease?

What is the role of liver function test results in the diagnosis of Graves disease?

What is the role of CBC count in the diagnosis of Graves disease?

What are the significance of a finding of gynecomastia in Graves disease?

What is the relationship between Graves disease and diabetes?

What is the role of a fasting lipid profile in the diagnosis of Graves disease?

What is the role of thyrotropin-releasing hormone testing in the diagnosis of Grave disease?

What is the role of serum antibodies testing in the diagnosis of Graves disease?

What is the role of radioactive iodine scanning in the diagnosis of Graves disease?

What is the role of ultrasound in the diagnosis of Graves disease?

What is the role of CT scanning and MRI in the diagnosis of Graves disease?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of Graves disease?

Treatment

What are the goals of treatment for Graves disease?

Which treatments for children with Graves disease have the greatest incidence of adverse events?

What are the guidelines for radioactive iodine therapy in the treatment of Graves disease?

What are the clinical phases of Graves ophthalmopathy?

What is the frequency of disease progression for Graves ophthalmopathy?

What are the treatment options for Graves ophthalmopathy?

How are hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism managed in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy?

What are the treatment options for mild-to-moderate Graves ophthalmopathy?

Which medications are used to treat severe or progressive Graves ophthalmopathy?

What is the role of surgical interventions in the treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy?

What is the role of orbital radiotherapy in the treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy?

What is the role of gamma knife surgery in the treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy?

When is surgical management of Graves ophthalmopathy performed?

Which novel treatments are under investigation for Graves ophthalmopathy?

What is the prevalence of pretibial (localized dermopathy) myxedema in Graves disease?

What are the clinical manifestations of pretibial (localized dermopathy) myxedema in Graves disease?

What is the treatment for mild pretibial (localized dermopathy) myxedema in Graves disease?

What is the role of steroidal therapy in the treatment of pretibial (localized dermopathy) myxedema in Graves disease?

What is acropachy in Graves disease?

In what setting are patients with Graves disease usually treated?

What is the role of inpatient care for the management of Graves disease?

What are the indications for surgical care in the treatment of Graves disease?

What in the preoperative preparation for thyroidectomy in patients with Graves disease?

What are the risks and benefits of endoscopic surgery compared to open surgery for the treatment of Graves disease?

What are the surgical options for the treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy?

When is consultation with an endocrinologist indicated in the treatment of Graves disease?

When is consultation with an ophthalmologist indicated for the treatment of Graves disease?

When is consultation with a dermatologist indicated for the treatment of Graves disease?

What is the role of dietary iodine intake in Graves disease?

What is the role of dietary iodine in the treatment of Graves disease?

What is the role of dietary iodine in the remission of Graves disease?

What are the activity recommendations for patients with Graves disease?

What are the possible complications of treatment for Graves disease?

How is Graves disease prevented?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of patients with Graves disease?

Guidelines

What are the ATA/AACE guidelines key recommendations for the treatment and management of Graves disease?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for Graves disease?

Which medications in the drug class Beta-adrenergic Blocker are used in the treatment of Graves Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of Graves Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Antiarrhythmics are used in the treatment of Graves Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Antidepressants are used in the treatment of Graves Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Bile acid sequestrants are used in the treatment of Graves Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Iodines are used in the treatment of Graves Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Beta-adrenergic blocker are used in the treatment of Graves Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Antithyroid agents are used in the treatment of Graves Disease?