Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults

Updated: Jun 17, 2022
  • Author: Mohsen S Eledrisi, MD, FACP, FACE; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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The somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland produce growth hormone (GH), which is stimulated by GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and inhibited by somatostatin, both of which are produced by the hypothalamus.

Adult GH deficiency can be a transition from childhood-onset GH deficiency, or it can be acquired during adulthood. The majority of cases are caused by pituitary tumors or by their treatment with surgery, radiation therapy, or both. [1] Traumatic brain injury is another important cause. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

GH deficiency in adults is associated with multiple metabolic changes such as abnormal lipid metabolism (increased total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]), increased subcutaneous and visceral fat, decreased muscle mass, decreased bone density, and features of the metabolic syndrome. [6, 7, 8] Patients usually present with reduced physical performance, impaired psychological well-being, low exercise performance, and reduced quality of life. [1]

The goals of GH therapy in adults are to improve conditioning, strength, body composition, and quality of life, as well as reduce the burden of potential associated medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease and decreased bone mineral density.

Patients should be educated about the technique of subcutaneous injection of GH.

For patient education resources, see Thyroid and Metabolism Center as well as Growth Hormone Deficiency, Growth Hormone Deficiency Medications, and Growth Hormone Deficiency FAQs.



Causes of growth hormone (GH) deficiency can be divided into three categories: acquired, congenital, and idiopathic. [9]

Acquired conditions of GH deficiency include tumors of the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus and metastatic disease; surgery or radiation therapy of the pituitary or hypothalamus; infiltrative diseases such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, histiocytosis X, hemochromatosis, and lymphocytic hypophysitis; infarction of the pituitary or hypothalamus (which can be spontaneous, or result from Sheehan syndrome or ischemic stroke); subarachnoid hemorrhage; infections of the central nervous system; and head trauma (during the acute stage of the injury and during the rehabilitation stage). [2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11] [12]

Congenital conditions are caused by genetic abnormalities or structural brain defects. Genetic abnormalities include transcription factor defects (PIT-1, PROP-1, LHX3/4, HESX-1, PITX-2), GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor gene defects, GH gene defects, and GH-receptor or post-receptor defects. Structural defects include agenesis of the corpus callosum, septo-optic dysplasia, empty sella syndrome, encephalocele, hydrocephalus, and arachnoid cyst. GH deficiency can occur in association with midline facial defects such as single central incisor, cleft lip, and cleft palate.

In rare cases, no clear etiology can be determined for GH deficiency. [9]



An estimated 6,000 adults are diagnosed with growth hormone (GH) deficiency every year in the United States. [2] Adult GH deficiency has been estimated to affect 1 in 100,000 people annually, whereas its incidence is approximately 2 cases per 100,000 population when childhood-onset GH deficiency patients are considered. [13, 14] About 15-20% of the cases represent the transition of childhood GH deficiency into adulthood. [13] The incidence rate is higher in males with childhood-onset GH deficiency and in people older than 45 years in the adult GH deficiency group. [13]

The age of presentation of acquired GH deficiency in adults often coincides with the discovery of pituitary tumors, usually between the fourth and fifth decades of life.