Gynecomastia Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 22, 2018
  • Author: George Ansstas, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is gynecomastia?

What should be the focus of history in the evaluation of gynecomastia?

What should be included in the physical exam of gynecomastia?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of gynecomastia?

Which factors necessitate further evaluation of gynecomastia?

Which lab tests are performed in the evaluation of gynecomastia?

What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of gynecomastia?

What are the treatment options for gynecomastia?

Which medications are used in the treatment of gynecomastia?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of gynecomastia?

What are possible complications from surgery treatment of gynecomastia?

What is gynecomastia?

What should be included in patient education about gynecomastia?

What is the pathogenesis of gynecomastia?

How does estrogen contribute to the development of gynecomastia?

What are the characteristics of increased estrogen production resulting in gynecomastia?

In which age groups is physiologic gynecomastia most likely to occur?

Which factors causes gynecomastia in adults?

What is the role of hyperprolactinemia in the etiology of gynecomastia?

What are the causes of pathologic gynecomastia?

What causes decreased androgen action in pathologic gynecomastia?

What causes increased estrogen action in pathologic gynecomastia?

What is the role of hypogonadism in the etiology of gynecomastia?

Which conditions may cause gynecomastia?

What is the role of drugs in the etiology of gynecomastia?

Which antiandrogen medications may cause gynecomastia?

Which chemotherapy agents may cause gynecomastia?

Which cardiac medications may cause gynecomastia?

Which hormonal medications may cause gynecomastia?

Which psychoactive agents may cause gynecomastia?

Which medications used to treat infectious diseases may cause gynecomastia?

Which drugs of abuse may cause gynecomastia?

Which medications may cause gynecomastia?

How are drugs stratified as etiologic agents of gynecomastia?

What are the most common etiologies of gynecomastia?

What is the prevalence of gynecomastia in the US?

What is the prognosis of gynecomastia?

How well does gynecomastia respond to treatment?

What are the psychological effects of gynecomastia?

How does gynecomastia affect sexual function?

Presentation

What should be the focus of history for gynecomastia?

What is the role of CT scans in the diagnosis of gynecomastia?

How is pseudogynecomastia differentiated from gynecomastia?

How is a breast exam conducted in the evaluation of gynecomastia?

What should be the focus of the physical exam for gynecomastia?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Gynecomastia?

Workup

What is included in the workup of gynecomastia?

What is the role of lab studies in the evaluation of gynecomastia?

What is the role of mammogram in the evaluation of gynecomastia?

When is a testicular ultrasound indicated in the treatment of gynecomastia?

What is the role of imaging in the evaluation of gynecomastia?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of gynecomastia?

What is the significance of vascular findings in the evaluation of gynecomastia?

Treatment

What are the focus of treatment for gynecomastia?

What algorithm can be used for the management of gynecomastia?

Why do men with gynecomastia undergo surgery?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of gynecomastia?

When is reduction mammoplasty indicated for the treatment of gynecomastia?

When is extensive plastic surgery indicated in the treatment of gynecomastia?

What is the prevalence of surgical complications in gynecomastia?

What is the role of endoscopic subcutaneous mastectomy in the treatment of gynecomastia?

What are possible complications of breast surgery for gynecomastia?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of gynecomastia?

Which medications in the drug class Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators are used in the treatment of Gynecomastia?

Which medications in the drug class Androgens are used in the treatment of Gynecomastia?