Dry Eye Disease (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca) Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 09, 2017
  • Author: C Stephen Foster, MD, FACS, FACR, FAAO, FARVO; Chief Editor: Andrew A Dahl, MD, FACS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What are the types of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What are the clinical features of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Which tests are performed in the workup of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Which tests are used in research studies to evaluate dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What are diagnostic criteria for dry eye disease associated with Sjögren syndrome (SS)?

What are the benefits of early detection and aggressive treatment of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Which types of medications are used to treat dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of therapeutic eyewear in the treatment of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Which punctal plugs are used in the treatment of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What are the surgical options for the treatment for dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Which diseases are associated with dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the anatomy of tear film relevant to dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the anatomy of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the pathophysiology of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of sex hormone deficiency in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of mucin deficiency in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

How does dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) affect tear protein production?

What causes dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What causes evaporative loss in dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What causes deficient aqueous production (ATD) in dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What are the primary lacrimal gland deficiencies in dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) unassociated with SS (non-SS KCS)?

What are the secondary lacrimal gland deficiencies in dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) unassociated with SS (non-SS KCS)?

Which lacrimal obstructive diseases may impair aqueous production in dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) unassociated with SS (non-SS KCS)?

Which medications may impair aqueous production in dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) unassociated with SS (non-SS KCS)?

Which conditions may cause reflex hyposecretion in dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) unassociated with SS (non-SS KCS)?

Which connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are associated with dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) associated with Sjögren syndrome (SS)?

What is the role of meibomian gland dysfunction in the etiology of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What causes a low brink rate in dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of eyelid aperture and eyelid-globe congruity disorders in the etiology of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What are the extrinsic causes of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

How is dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) classified based on mechanism?

What is the classification of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) based on severity?

What is the prevalence of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) in the US?

Which patient groups have the highest incidence of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the prognosis of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What should be included in patient education about dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Presentation

What are the most common patient complaints of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

DDX

What are differential diagnoses for dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Dry Eye Disease (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca)?

Workup

How is Sjögren syndrome (SS) diagnosed in patients with dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

How is dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) diagnosed?

Which studies may be performed in the workup of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of tear breakup time (TBUT) testing in the workup of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of epithelial staining in the workup of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of Schirmer test in the workup of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of lipid testing in the workup of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

How is the aqueous component in dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) assessed?

How are mucins analyzed in the workup of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) assessment in the workup of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of meibography in the workup of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Which tests are performed to measure the tear components in dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

How is meibomian gland morphology analyzed in the workup of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the role of meniscometry in the workup of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is step one of the treatment for dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) algorithm proposed by TFOS DEWS II?

What is step two of the treatment for dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) algorithm proposed by TFOS DEWS II?

What is step three of the treatment for dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) algorithm proposed by TFOS DEWS II?

What is step four of the treatment for dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) algorithm proposed by TFOS DEWS II?

Which types of medications are used to treat dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is included in pharmacologic therapy for the treatment for dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What is the efficacy of diquafosol and sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

/what is the role of eye protection in the treatment of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What types of punctal plugs are used in the treatment of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

What are the surgical options for the treatment of dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Medications

What is the role of drug treatment for dry eye disease (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)?

Which medications in the drug class Nutritionals, Other are used in the treatment of Dry Eye Disease (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca)?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Dry Eye Disease (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca)?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressants are used in the treatment of Dry Eye Disease (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca)?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics, Systemic are used in the treatment of Dry Eye Disease (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca)?

Which medications in the drug class Mucolytic Agents are used in the treatment of Dry Eye Disease (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca)?

Which medications in the drug class LFA-1 Antagonists are used in the treatment of Dry Eye Disease (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca)?

Which medications in the drug class Ophthalmic Lubricants are used in the treatment of Dry Eye Disease (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca)?