Hyperglucagonemia Follow-up

Updated: Aug 29, 2013
  • Author: George T Griffing, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Follow-up

Further Outpatient Care

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  • Nutrition supplementation
  • Management of diabetes
  • Monitoring of recurrence with periodic fasting plasma glucagon levels
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Further Inpatient Care

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  • Total parenteral nutrition with amino acid, fatty acid, and zinc supplementation
  • Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis
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Inpatient & Outpatient Medications

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  • Octreotide
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Deterrence/Prevention

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  • No known preventive measures for glucagonoma syndrome exist.
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Complications

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  • Deep venous thrombosis
  • Hypercalcemia when glucagonoma syndrome occurs as part of MEN type 1 syndrome [23, 24]
  • Adverse effects of therapy, such as gallstone formation from octreotide
  • Complications of diabetes mellitus
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Prognosis

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  • Glucagonomas are slow-growing tumors with an indolent course.
  • Approximately 50-60% of the tumors are malignant and have, by the time of diagnosis, metastasized to the liver. Even with liver metastases, some patients live over 20 years without therapy. [36]
  • Metastasis to the liver, complications of deep venous thrombosis, and the catabolic effects of the tumor are the usual causes of death and shortened survival.
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Patient Education

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  • Patient education should center on informing the patient of the nature of the disease and what to expect.
  • Offer the patient dietary counseling to ensure adequate nutrition.
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