Carotid-Cavernous Fistula (CCF) Medication

Updated: May 24, 2019
  • Author: Ingrid U Scott, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD  more...
  • Print
Medication

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy are to reduce morbidity and to prevent complications. Medications used to decrease aqueous production include beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (topical or oral), and alpha2-agonists.

Next:

Beta-adrenergic blockers

Class Summary

Decrease intraocular pressure (IOP) by reducing the aqueous production.

Timolol 0.25% or 0.5% (Timoptic, Timoptic XE, Blocadren)

May reduce elevated and normal IOP, with or without glaucoma by reducing production of aqueous humor or by outflow.

Levobunolol (AKBeta, Betagan)

Nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent that lowers IOP by reducing aqueous humor production and possibly increases outflow of aqueous humor.

Metipranolol 0.3% (OptiPranolol)

Beta-adrenergic blocker that has little or no intrinsic sympathomimetic effects and membrane stabilizing activity. Has little local anesthetic activity. Reduces IOP by reducing production of aqueous humor.

Carteolol 1.0% (Ocupress)

Blocks beta1- and beta2-receptors and has mild intrinsic sympathomimetic effects.

Betaxolol ophthalmic (Betoptic, Kerlone)

Selectively blocks beta1-adrenergic receptors with little or no effect on beta2-receptors. Reduces IOP by reducing production of aqueous humor.

Previous
Next:

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

Class Summary

By slowing the formation of bicarbonate ions with subsequent reduction in sodium and fluid transport, it may inhibit CA in the ciliary processes of the eye. This effect decreases aqueous humor secretion, reducing IOP.

Dorzolamide (Trusopt)

Used concomitantly with other topical ophthalmic drug products to lower IOP. If more than one ophthalmic drug is being used, administer the drugs at least 10 min apart. Reversibly inhibits carbonic anhydrase, reducing hydrogen ion secretion at renal tubule and increases renal excretion of sodium, potassium bicarbonate, and water to decrease production of aqueous humor.

Brinzolamide 1% (Azopt)

Catalyzes reversible reaction involving hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of carbonic acid. May use concomitantly with other topical ophthalmic drug products to lower IOP. If more than one topical ophthalmic drug is being used, administer drugs at least 10 min apart.

Acetazolamide (Diamox, Diamox Sequels)

Inhibits enzyme carbonic anhydrase, reducing rate of aqueous humor formation, which, in turn, reduces IOP. Used for adjunctive treatment of chronic simple (open-angle) glaucoma and secondary glaucoma and preoperatively in acute angle-closure glaucoma when delay of surgery desired to lower IOP.

Methazolamide (Neptazane)

Reduces aqueous humor formation by inhibiting enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which results in decreased IOP.

Previous
Next:

Alpha-agonists

Class Summary

The exact mechanism of ocular antihypertensive action is not established but appears to be a reduction of aqueous humor production.

Brimonidine (Alphagan)

Selective alpha2 receptor that reduces aqueous humor formation and increases uveoscleral outflow.

Apraclonidine (Iopidine)

Reduces elevated, as well as normal, IOP whether or not accompanied by glaucoma. A relatively selective alpha-adrenergic agonist that does not have significant local anesthetic activity. Has minimal cardiovascular effects.

Previous