Hypoglycemia Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 20, 2018
  • Author: Osama Hamdy, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the focus of the medical history in the evaluation of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

How are the neurologic symptoms of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) characterized?

What signs and symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia?

What is the significance of loss of consciousness in hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What are the signs and symptoms of gestational hypoglycemia?

What is the Whipple triad in the diagnosis of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is included in the physical exam of suspected hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

How does the presentation of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) vary in elderly patients?

What is the role of lab studies in the diagnosis of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the role of imaging in the workup of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Which procedures are performed in the workup of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the mainstay of therapy for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Which medications are used in the treatment of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

In addition to medications, what therapies are used in the management of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

When is surgery indicated in the treatment of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

How is hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) diagnosed?

What is the pathophysiology of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What causes hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What causes fasting hypoglycemia?

Which drugs increase the risk of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the role of opioid analgesics in the etiology of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Which type 2 diabetes treatments increase the risk of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is factitious hypoglycemia?

When should exogenous insulin be considered as the etiology of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Which tumors cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Which insulin-producing tumors cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Which non-insulin producing tumors cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What are the causes of reactive hypoglycemia?

What are congenital causes of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Which conditions may cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the incidence of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the incidence of insulin-producing tumors causing hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What are the age predilections for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the prognosis of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Presentation

What should be the focus of medical history of a patient with hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What medical history suggests hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What should be the focus of social history of patients with hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What organ systems symptoms should be reviewed in the evaluation of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What are neurologic symptoms of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Why is the timing of onset of symptoms relative to meal ingestion significant in evaluation of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What are characteristics of postprandial hyperglycemia in hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the association between hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and dementia or cognitive impairment?

What are risk factors for reactive hypoglycemia?

What are risk factors for gestational hypoglycemia?

Which dermatologic findings suggest hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Which head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat (HEENT) findings are characteristic of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What are cardiovascular symptoms of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What are respiratory symptoms of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

How are the symptoms presented in elderly patients with hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

DDX

Why is rapid diagnosis and treatment of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) necessary?

What may cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in patients with diabetes?

What are less common conditions that can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Hypoglycemia?

Workup

Which tests are performed in the workup of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

When is blood glucose tested in patients with hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the role of blood glucose testing in patients with hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the role of oral glucose tolerance testing in the diagnosis of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the role of the 72-hour fasting plasma glucose test in the diagnosis of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

How are C-peptide levels used to diagnose hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the role of radiology in the diagnosis of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Treatment

What is the mainstay of therapy for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What is the efficacy of dietary therapy in the treatment of fasting hypoglycemia?

When is exercise indicated as treatment for fasting hypoglycemia?

When is surgery indicated in the treatment of fasting hypoglycemia?

What are treatment options for reactive hypoglycemia?

How frequently is hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) a complication of diabetes?

What are the acute sequelae of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

What complications can result from patients with sulfonylurea-related hypoglycemia?

What are the complications of untreated fasting hypoglycemia?

How does hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) affect the prognosis of critically ill patients?

What is the effect of nonsevere hypoglycemic events (NSHEs) on diabetes management?

How should episodes of hypoglycemia be managed in patients with diabetes?

What guidelines have been published for the management of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in patients with diabetes?

What is the Hypoglycemia Patient Questionnaire?

What is the purpose of the Hypoglycemia Provider Checklist?

When is long-term monitoring indicated for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Medications

Which medications are used for the treatment of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)?

Which medications in the drug class Glucose Supplement are used in the treatment of Hypoglycemia?

Which medications in the drug class Glucose-Elevating Agents are used in the treatment of Hypoglycemia?

Which medications in the drug class Inhibitors of insulin secretion are used in the treatment of Hypoglycemia?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic agents are used in the treatment of Hypoglycemia?