Hammertoe Deformity Questions & Answers

Updated: Jan 29, 2021
  • Author: Anthony Watson, MD; Chief Editor: Vinod K Panchbhavi, MD, FACS, FAOA, FABOS, FAAOS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is a hammertoe deformity?

How is hammertoe deformity treated nonoperatively?

What are the surgical treatments for hammertoe deformity?

What is the anatomy of the phalanges relevant to hammertoe deformity?

What is the pathophysiology of hammertoe deformity?

What causes hammertoe deformity?

What is the prevalence of hammertoe deformity?

What is the prognosis of hammertoe deformity?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of hammertoe deformity?

What is included in the physical exam to evaluate a hammertoe deformity?

Which physical findings are characteristic of hammertoe deformity?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of hammertoe deformity?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the workup of hammertoe deformity?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of hammertoe deformity?

What is the role of histology in the workup of hammertoe deformity?

Treatment

How is a hammertoe deformity treated?

Which medical therapies are used in the treatment of hammertoe deformity?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of hammertoe deformity?

What is involved in preparation for surgical treatment of a hammertoe deformity?

What is the role of flexor tenotomy in the treatment of a hammertoe deformity?

What is the role of Girdlestone-Taylor flexor-to-extensor tendon transfer in the treatment of a hammertoe deformity?

What is the role of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint resection arthroplasty in the treatment of a hammertoe deformity?

Which procedures are performed when PIP joint resection arthroplasty does not correct a hammertoe deformity?

What is included in postoperative care following surgery for hammertoe deformity?

What are the possible complications of hammertoe correction surgery?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of a hammertoe deformity?