Hypertriglyceridemia Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 29, 2017
  • Author: Mary Ellen T Sweeney, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is hypolipoproteinemia?

What is hyperlipidemia?

What are the signs and symptoms of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which physical findings suggest hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which lab studies are used to evaluate hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When is biopsy indicated for diagnosing hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How is hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) defined by the Fredrickson classification?

What is type I hyperlipidemia?

Does hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) increase the risk for atherosclerotic disease?

What is type IIb hyperlipidemia?

What is type III hyperlipidemia?

What is type IV hyperlipidemia?

What is type V hyperlipidemia?

What is included in the nonpharmacological management of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which medications are used in the management of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When is surgical intervention indicated for hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the biological composition of triglycerides?

What are the sources of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins?

What is the role of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) in the pathophysiology of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are apoEs and what is their role in the pathophysiology of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the role of chylomicron and VLDL metabolism in the pathophysiology of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What causes hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD)?

What are the genetic causes of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What causes type I hyperlipoproteinemia?

Is there a genetic predisposition for dysbetalipoproteinemia?

Which triglyceride disorders are genetically controlled?

What is familial combined hyperlipidemia?

What is familial hypertriglyceridemia?

Which genes are associated with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Does diabetes mellitus cause hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Why are triglyceride levels elevated in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinemia?

Does obesity cause hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Does hypothyroidism cause hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Does nephrotic syndrome cause hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which medications may cause hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which dietary factors may cause hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Does acute pancreatitis cause hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How do obesity and uric acid elevation cause hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Does hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) occur during pregnancy?

What is the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) in the US?

What is the frequency of apolipoprotein (apo) E among different racial groups in the US?

What is prevalence of severe hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the global frequency of apolipoprotein (apo)E?

Does the prevalence of dysbetalipoproteinemia vary among racial groups?

Is hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) more prevalent in men or women?

What is the prevalence of dysbetalipoproteinemia among different age groups?

How does age affect the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) in men and women?

At what age is hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) normally detected?

What is the prognosis of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Does hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) increase the risk for cardiovascular disease?

Are hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) and acute pancreatitis comorbidities?

At what triglyceride level is treatment to prevent acute pancreatitis required?

How is recurrent pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) prevented?

What is chylomicronemia syndrome?

What patient education should be provided regarding hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Presentation

What are the risk factors for cardiovascular events in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) identified by the USPSTF?

What are the risk factors for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis identified by the AACE?

What are the GI symptoms of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the dermatologic symptoms of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the ophthalmologic symptoms of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the physical findings in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) and triglyceride levels less than 1000 mg/dL?

What are the physical findings in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) and acutely and massively elevated triglycerides?

What are the physical findings in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) and peripheral vascular disease?

What are the GI findings in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) and pancreatitis or the chylomicronemia syndrome?

Which dermatologic findings suggest hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which ophthalmologic abnormalities suggest hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which neurological findings suggest hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

DDX

Which disorders should be included in the differential diagnoses of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Hypertriglyceridemia?

Workup

How is hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) diagnosed?

Which tests should be done to confirm a diagnosis of eruptive xanthomas?

Which test results may predict cardiovascular events in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How are elevated triglyceride levels determined?

What is the role of the standard lipid profile in the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the role of beta quantification (lipoprotein electrophoresis) in the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When is the use of a specialized lipid center indicated for the diagnosis of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the Endocrine Society recommendations for routine lipoprotein particle heterogeneity measurements in the workup of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How is the presence of chylomicrons confirmed in hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How is type I hyperlipidemia diagnosed?

How is defective or absent apo C-II determined in the workup of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Treatment

How frequently is LDL cholesterol level response measured in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the initial nonpharmacologic treatment for hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When should pharmacologic therapy be considered for hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When is pharmacologic therapy indicated to reduce triglyceride levels in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the initial treatment for hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When is statin therapy indicated in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What should be considered before administering medications that may cause severe hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When are surgery and plasmapheresis indicated to treat hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How is acute pancreatitis treated in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When is a referral to a specialist indicated for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What updates have been issued by the FDA concerning interactions between protease inhibitors and statin drugs?

What are the 2012 FDA safety label changes for statins?

What are the FDA recommendations for dose limits of simvastatin (Zocor)?

How much do statins lower triglycerides levels?

Is nicotinic acid combined with a statin effective in lowering triglyceride levels?

Which fibrates are used to treat hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Do fibrates reduce the risk of coronary complications in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How do fibrates affect creatinine and albumin levels in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which formulations of fenofibrate are available in the US for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How effective is high-dose niacin in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride level)?

What are the possible adverse effects of niacin in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Do omega-3 fatty acids effectively treat hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which prescription fish oil capsules are available to treat hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Is icosapent effective in reducing triglyceride levels in hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Is omega-3 carboxylic acid (Epanova) effective for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When are statins indicated for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How is hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) managed in patients intolerant of statins?

When are bile acid sequestrants indicated in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When is metformin indicated in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When is ezetimibe (Zetia) indicated for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the ATP III guidelines classification of triglycerides?

According to the ATP III guidelines, when does triglyceride treatment take priority over LDL treatment?

According to the ATP III guidelines, when is non-HDL cholesterol used as the initial target of LDL-lowering medication?

According to the ATP III guidelines, how should secondary causes of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) be managed?

Are lifestyle changes effective treatments for hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the specific dietary recommendations in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Should alcohol be restricted in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Should fat intake be restricted in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the risks and benefits of fat restriction in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Should carbohydrate intake be restricted in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How does exercise affect triglyceride levels?

How much exercise does the AHA recommend for patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the benefits of exercise prescription beyond lipid effects in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How is hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) managed during pregnancy?

How can the risk for cardiovascular disease be reduced in hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the secondary prevention for cardiovascular events in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which patients are at very high risk for hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the screening guidelines for hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How effective are lifestyle changes in the management of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which drugs can aggravate modest triglyceride elevations?

How is severe hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels) managed during pregnancy?

What specialist consultations are indicated in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What long-term monitoring is indicated in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When are creatinine kinase determinations indicated in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How should diabetes be managed in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Medications

Which medication classes are used for management of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the role of fibrates in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which fibrates are used to treat hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the role of niacin in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the adverse effects of niacin in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

Which prescription fish oil products are approved by the FDA for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the role of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the role of bile acid sequestrants in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What is the role of statins in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

When are bile acid sequestrants indicated in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

How is metabolic syndrome managed in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels)?

What are the characteristics of fibric acid agents, omega acid ethyl esters, and niacin drugs?

What are the characteristics of statin drugs?

Which medications in the drug class Fibric Acid Agents are used in the treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia?

Which medications in the drug class Omega-3 Acids are used in the treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia?

Which medications in the drug class Lipid-Lowering Agents, Other are used in the treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia?

Which medications in the drug class Lipid-Lowering Agents, Statins are used in the treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia?