Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 15, 2019
  • Author: Vera A De Palo, MD, MBA, FCCP; Chief Editor: Vinod K Panchbhavi, MD, FACS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What are the signs and symptoms of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

How is venous thromboembolism (VTE) diagnosed?

Which anticoagulant medications are used in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What are the thrombolytic options for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Which surgical interventions are used in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Which medications are used to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What are the nonpharmacologic approaches to the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What are the AAOS guidelines for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery?

How do guidelines for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) vary?

What is the pathophysiology of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What causes venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What are the risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients?

Which hematologic disorders that increase the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the clinical risk prediction algorithm (Qthrombosis) for venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the annual incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the US?

What is the annual global incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

How does age affect the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

How does the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) vary by age?

How does the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) vary by sex?

What are the racial predilections of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the prognosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is included in patient education about venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Which physical findings suggest pulmonary venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the Wells clinical decision rule for venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the workup of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of radiography in the workup of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of helical (spiral) CT scanning in the workup of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the workup of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of pulmonary angiography in the workup of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of venography in the workup of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of ventilation-perfusion scanning in the workup of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of plethysmography in the workup of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of electrocardiography in the workup of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Treatment

How is venous thromboembolism (VTE) treated?

How is venous thromboembolism (VTE) treated during pregnancy?

Which organization has published treatment guidelines for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer?

What is the role of anticoagulant therapy in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of heparin in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

When is LMWH indicated for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Which factor Xa and direct thrombin inhibitors are used in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of rivaroxaban in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of apixaban in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of dabigatran in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of edoxaban in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of betrixaban in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

When is thrombolytic therapy indicated in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What are the contraindications for thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is included in inpatient care for venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is postthrombotic syndrome and how is it treated in venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the incidence of severe bleeding in venous thromboembolism (VTE) and how is it treated?

What are the heparin-induced complications in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What causes skin necrosis in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the rate of recurrence for venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the role of thromboprophylaxis in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What is the efficacy of thromboprophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What are the nonpharmacologic interventions for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention?

What are the indications for prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Guidelines

What are the ASCO guidelines for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients?

What are the ASH guidelines for the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What are the ASH guidelines for optimal management of anticoagulation therapy for venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What are the EAS guidelines for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in elderly surgical patients?

What are the AACP guidelines for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

What are the AAOS guidelines for preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty?

What are the international guidelines for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

Which medications in the drug class Thrombin Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)?

Which medications in the drug class Factor Xa Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)?

Which medications in the drug class Thrombolytic Agents are used in the treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)?

Which medications in the drug class Anticoagulants, Hematologic are used in the treatment of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)?