Adrenal Hemorrhage Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 25, 2020
  • Author: Nicholas A Tritos, MD, DSc, MMSc, FACP, FACE; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is adrenal hemorrhage?

What is the pathophysiology of adrenal hemorrhage?

What is the prevalence of adrenal hemorrhage in the US?

What are the morbidity and mortality associated with adrenal hemorrhage?

What are the sexual predilections of adrenal hemorrhage?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of adrenal hemorrhage?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of adrenal hemorrhage?

How is pain characterized in adrenal hemorrhage?

What are the signs and symptoms of adrenal hemorrhage?

Which physical findings are characteristic of adrenal hemorrhage?

What are the less common physical findings in adrenal hemorrhage?

How is skin rash characterized in Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome-related adrenal hemorrhage?

What are the signs and symptoms of acute abdomen in patients with adrenal hemorrhage?

What causes confusion and disorientation in patients with adrenal hemorrhage?

What causes bilateral adrenal hemorrhage?

What causes unilateral adrenal hemorrhage?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of adrenal hemorrhage?

What are the differential diagnoses for Adrenal Hemorrhage?

Workup

What is the role of complete blood count (CBC) in the workup of adrenal hemorrhage?

What is the role of a metabolic panel in the workup of adrenal hemorrhage?

What are roles of adrenal hormone tests in the workup of adrenal hemorrhage?

What is the role of short cosyntropin (Cortrosyn) in the workup of adrenal hemorrhage?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of adrenal hemorrhage?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of adrenal hemorrhage?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of adrenal hemorrhage?

What medical procedures are indicated in the diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of adrenal hemorrhage?

Treatment

How is adrenal hemorrhage treated?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of adrenal hemorrhage?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with adrenal hemorrhage?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of adrenal hemorrhage?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of adrenal hemorrhage?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of adrenal hemorrhage?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Adrenal Hemorrhage?

Follow-up

What further outpatient care is indicated in the treatment of adrenal hemorrhage?

When is inpatient care indicated for adrenal hemorrhage?

Which medications are used in the treatment of adrenal hemorrhage?

When is transfer indicated for the treatment of adrenal hemorrhage?

How is adrenal hemorrhage prevented?

What are the possible complications of adrenal hemorrhage?

What is the prognosis of adrenal hemorrhage?

What is included in patient education about adrenal hemorrhage?