Triplane Fracture Clinical Presentation

Updated: Apr 22, 2022
  • Author: John L Abt, DO, FACEP, FACFE; Chief Editor: Jeffrey D Thomson, MD  more...
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Presentation

History

An accurate account recreating the action that led to the injury assists the practitioner in predicting the area of injury. In a triplane fracture of the ankle, nearly all cases involve an external rotation of the foot on the tibia, creating stress along the distal lateral open tibial growth plate. Other contributing forces that propagate the fracture lines are axial loading in combination with the foot being in plantarflexion (most common) and supination, abduction, or pronation.

Patients are more likely to be adolescent males with right-side ankle injuries.

It is important to inquire about other areas of injury or pain. The pain of a triplane fracture is sufficient to distract attention from other areas, even when a significant injury is present.

Other chronic medical conditions (eg, prior injury or surgery; orthopedic hardware in the area of injury; diabetes; peripheral vascular disease; metabolic bone disease) should be documented.

Current and recent use of medications, including corticosteroids, should be determined.

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Physical Examination

Patients with a triplane fracture of the ankle present with the following:

  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Possible ecchymosis
  • Possible ankle deformity
  • Inability to bear weight on the injured ankle

All areas should be observed for evidence of open injury, including lacerations and abrasions. The patient should be asked to demonstrate any ankle and toe motion that can be performed voluntarily without assistance.

Posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis pulses should be checked and compared with the pulses on the uninjured side. Up to 15% of the population has a congenital absence of the dorsalis pedis artery. Adequate distal capillary artery refill—that is, 2 seconds or less—should be checked for.

The patient should be assessed for distal sensation and evidence of compartment syndrome tingling, decreased sensation, swelling, pale skin, diminished pulses, and severe pain with passive movement of the toes.

The knee, the leg, and the foot should be examined for tenderness, ecchymosis, and swelling. Radiographs of the knee, the leg, and the foot are needed if there are positive findings. Careful attention must be paid to the fibula, which must also be palpated and inspected along its entire length. Fibular fractures are commonly associated with triplane fractures. A fibular fracture likely to be missed upon initial evaluation is the Maisonneuve fracture of the proximal fibula, as reported by Healy. [25]

Other areas at high risk for fracture, such as the calcaneus and the proximal fifth metatarsal, should be inspected and palpated. The calcaneus should be cupped as if it were a tennis ball and gently compressed. If pain is elicited, a calcaneal fracture should be suspected.

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