Vitamin D Deficiency and Related Disorders Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 29, 2019
  • Author: Vin Tangpricha, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What causes vitamin D deficiency?

What are the treatment options for vitamin D deficiency in infants?

What are the treatment options for vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents?

What are the treatment options for vitamin D deficiency in adults?

How is vitamin D deficiency treated in patients with comorbid obesity or malabsorption syndrome who are taking medication that affects vitamin D metabolism?

What are the manifestations of vitamin D deficiency?

Which physical findings suggest severe vitamin D deficiency?

How is vitamin D status determined?

What is the role of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency?

Who is at highest risk for vitamin D deficiency?

What is the indication for ultraviolet B light therapy for vitamin D deficiency?

What is the recommended provision for vitamin D from sunlight?

What is the recommended dietary intake of vitamin D for patients at risk of deficiency?

What are dietary sources of vitamin D?

What is the manifestation of vitamin D deficiency?

What is the importance of vitamin D?

What is vitamin D?

What is the difference between vitamins D2 and D3?

How does vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy affect offspring?

What is the role of vitamin D in fetal development?

What is the physiology of vitamin D in the body?

What is the pathophysiology of vitamin D deficiency?

What causes vitamin D deficiency?

What is the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the US?

What is the global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency?

What are the racial predilections of vitamin D deficiency?

How does the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency vary by age?

What are the benefits of treating vitamin D insufficiency?

What is the role of oral vitamin D supplements in the prevention of bone fractures?

What is the role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of osteoporosis?

What are the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in the elderly?

What are the risks associated with vitamin D deficiency in adults?

What is the role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of diabetes mellitus?

What is the mortality associated with vitamin D deficiency and diabetes?

What is the association between vitamin D deficiency and stroke?

What is the association between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease (CVD)?

What is the effect of vitamin D supplementation on mortality risk in vitamin D deficiency?

Which form of vitamin D supplementation decreased mortality in elderly women with vitamin D deficiency, and what is the relation of vitamin D supplementation to cancer risk?

Presentation

Which clinical history is characteristic of vitamin D deficiency?

What are the physical findings characteristic of vitamin D deficiency?

DDX

Which conditions should be considered in the differential diagnoses of vitamin D deficiency?

Workup

What is the role of serum 25(OH)D in the workup of vitamin D deficiency?

What is the role of parathyroid hormone testing in the workup of vitamin D deficiency?

Treatment

Which patient groups should be screened for vitamin D deficiency?

What is the daily maintenance dose of vitamin D?

What is the upper limit of vitamin D beyond which risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and mortality increase?

What is the recommended sun exposure for production of vitamin D?

Who is at risk for vitamin D deficiency?

What are good dietary sources of vitamin D?

Which foods have the highest amounts of vitamin D?

What are the limitations of vitamin D supplements?

What is included in long-term monitoring of vitamin D deficiency?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for vitamin D deficiency?

Why are there variances in the recommended daily amount of vitamin D between the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Endocrine Society (ES)?

What are the Endocrine Society recommended daily doses of vitamin D?

What are considerations when recommending over-the-counter vitamin D supplementation for vitamin D deficiency?

Which medications in the drug class Vitamins, Fat-Soluble are used in the treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency and Related Disorders?