Accessory Nerve Injury Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 09, 2018
  • Author: Rohan R Walvekar, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are the biomechanics of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the morbidity associated with spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the prevalence of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are the iatrogenic causes of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are the traumatic causes of accessory nerve injury?

What are the neurologic causes of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the pathophysiology of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

How is a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury evaluated?

What are the symptoms of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are the signs of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are the differential diagnoses of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are indications for spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury repair?

What is the anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN)?

What are the anatomic connections to the spinal accessory nerve (SAN)?

What are important landmarks and variations of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) that make it vulnerable to injury?

Workup

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the role of electrodiagnostic test in the diagnosis of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the role of electrodiagnostic test in the management of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

How is shoulder function evaluated in spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

How is intraoperative diagnosis of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury achieved?

What are the cardinal symptoms of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are the clinical signs associated with a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

Which factors increase the difficulty of diagnosing a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

Treatment

How is a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury treated?

When is nonsurgical management of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury indicated?

What are short-term options for nonsurgical treatment of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the role of rehabilitation in the treatment of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the role of orthoses in the treatment of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the role of physical therapy (PT) in the treatment of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are indications for surgical management of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are the surgical options for treatment of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the role of neurolysis in the treatment of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the role of nerve repair in the treatment of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the role of primary anastomosis and tension avoidance in the treatment of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the role of nerve grafting in the treatment of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are advantages of biosynthetic nerve guides for nerve grafting to treat spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

How do the principles of primary nerve anastomosis apply to nerve grafting for the treatment of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are the indications for an Eden-Lange procedure to treat a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

How is the Eden-Lange procedure performed for the treatment of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is included in preoperative management of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are the general intraoperative details for the surgical treatment of a spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is included in postoperative care following surgery for spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is included in the post-surgical treatment of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What are the possible complications of nerve grafts used in the treatment of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?

What is the prognosis of spinal accessory (SAN) injury?

What is the role of biopsy in the treatment of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury?