Allergic Rhinitis Questions & Answers

Updated: May 18, 2018
  • Author: Javed Sheikh, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A Kaliner, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the complications of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the ear, eye and throat symptoms of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which lab tests are used in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

How are imaging studies used in the diagnosis and evaluation of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the major treatment strategies for allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the economic burden of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which mediators are immediately released in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are systemic effects of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (hay fever) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the mortality and morbidities of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are racial predilections of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

How does the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (hay fever) vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (hay fever) vary by age?

Presentation

What is the focus of history for suspected allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are symptoms of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

At what age is the onset of symptoms for allergic rhinitis (hay fever) most common?

What is the significance of a time pattern to symptoms of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

How is allergic rhinitis (hay fever) classified?

What is the significance of congestion in allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are possible trigger factors for allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are irritant triggers associated with allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which perennial allergens may cause chronic allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is indicated by response to treatments for allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which atopic conditions are associated with allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are complications of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Why is the risk for developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increased in patients with allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of concomitant medical conditions in the diagnosis and treatment allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which conditions increase the risk for allergic rhinitis (hay fever) in children?

What is the role of family history in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which environmental exposures should be the focus of history in suspected allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the effect of allergic rhinitis (hay fever) on quality of life?

What is the focus of the physical exam for suspected allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the facial features characteristic of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

How is the nasal exam of allergic rhinitis (hay fever) conducted?

Which nasal exam findings suggest allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What should be included in the nasal exam in patients with allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of otoscopy in the workup of suspected allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are ocular exam findings characteristic of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which physical findings in the throat are characteristic of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the focus of the neck exam in suspected allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the focus in the respiratory exam in suspected allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the focus of the dermatologic exam in suspected allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which systemic diseases should be considered in the physical exam for suspected allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the causes of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are common tree pollens that cause allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are common grass pollens that cause allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are some common weed pollens that cause allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

How do atmospheric conditions affect the dispersion of mold that cause allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the cause of perennial allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which house dust mite species commonly cause allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which pets are most likely to cause perennial allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which insect is a common cause of perennial allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which pest infestation can cause allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What causes sporadic allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is occupational allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses for allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Allergic Rhinitis?

Workup

What is the role of allergy testing in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

How are allergy skin tests used to diagnose allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

How is an allergy skin test performed in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

How are in vitro allergy tests used to diagnose allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the basis for selecting allergens to test for in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of immunoglobulin E (IgE) measurement in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of blood eosinophil count in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of radiography in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of nasal cytology in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of upper airway endoscopy (rhinolaryngoscopy) in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of nasal provocation (allergen challenge) testing in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

How and when is environmental control and allergen avoidance used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the environmental control measures for outdoor allergens that cause allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the environmental control measures for indoor allergens that cause allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the environmental control measures for indoor mold that cause allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the indoor environmental control measures for animals that cause allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the best environmental control measure for occupational allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are possible nonspecific triggers for allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of pharmacotherapies in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which sublingual (SL) tablet has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever) caused by grass pollens?

How should the Oralair SL tablet be administered for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of Grastek in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of Ragwitek in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the role of Odactra in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

How is Odactra administered for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is the efficacy of Odactra in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What are the limitations of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

When is surgical care for allergic rhinitis (hay fever) indicated?

What is the role of turbinoplasty in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

When should specialist consultation be considered for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Guidelines

What are the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters (JTFPP) treatment guidelines for seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) in adolescents and adults?

What key recommendations are included in the AAOH-NSF treatment guidelines for allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

Which medications in the drug class Second-generation antihistamines are used in the treatment of Allergic Rhinitis?

Which medications in the drug class Leukotriene receptor antagonists are used in the treatment of Allergic Rhinitis?

Which medications in the drug class First-generation antihistamines are used in the treatment of Allergic Rhinitis?

Which medications in the drug class Decongestants are used in the treatment of Allergic Rhinitis?

Which medications in the drug class Nasal corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Allergic Rhinitis?

Which medications in the drug class Nasal corticosteroids and antihistamine combinations are used in the treatment of Allergic Rhinitis?

Which medications in the drug class Antihistamines, Intranasal are used in the treatment of Allergic Rhinitis?

Which medications in the drug class Mast Cell Stabilizers are used in the treatment of Allergic Rhinitis?

Which medications in the drug class Intranasal anticholinergic agents are used in the treatment of Allergic Rhinitis?

Which medications in the drug class Allergy Extracts are used in the treatment of Allergic Rhinitis?