Cold Agglutinin Disease Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 28, 2018
  • Author: Salman Abdullah Aljubran, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A Kaliner, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is cold agglutinin disease?

What are the differences between primary and secondary cold agglutinin disease?

How is cold agglutinin disease treated?

What is the pathophysiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of genetics in the pathophysiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of infectious agents in the pathophysiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of IgM antibodies in the pathophysiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of red blood cells (RBCs) in the pathophysiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of complement levels in the pathophysiology of cold agglutinin disease?

Which hematologic diseases are associated with cold agglutinin disease?

What is the pathophysiology of warm-cold antibody combinations in cold agglutinin disease?

What is the pathophysiology of biphasic hemolysins in cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of agglutinin production modulation in the pathophysiology of cold agglutinin disease?

Which factors are needed to induce active hemolytic anemia in cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of transplantation in the etiology of cold agglutinin disease?

How prevalent is cold agglutinin disease in infectious mononucleosis?

What causes cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of infection in the etiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of CANOMAD syndrome (chronic ataxic neuropathy ophthalmoplegia M-protein agglutination disialosyl antibodies) in the etiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of malignancy in the etiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of systemic sclerosis in the etiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS) in the etiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of vaccination in the etiology of cold agglutinin disease?

What are rare causes of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the prevalence of cold agglutinin disease in the US?

What is the global prevalence of cold agglutinin disease?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the prognosis of cold agglutinin disease?

What are the possible complications of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the mortality rate for cold agglutinin disease?

How does a positive direct Coombs test (direct antiglobulin test) (DAT) affect the prognosis of cold agglutinin disease?

What is included in patient education about cold agglutinin disease?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of cold agglutinin disease?

Which physical findings are characteristic of cold agglutinin disease?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of cold agglutinin disease?

How is cold agglutinin disease differentiated from cryoglobulinemia?

How is warm antibody–mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia differentiated from cold agglutinin disease?

How is episodic hemoglobinuria following cold exposure differentiated from cold agglutinin disease?

Which neoplasms are associated with cold agglutinin disease?

How is drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia differentiated from cold agglutinin disease?

What are the differential diagnoses for Cold Agglutinin Disease?

Workup

What is the role of blood tests in the workup of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of urinalysis in the workup of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of CBC count and peripheral smear in the workup of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of reticulocytes and spherocytes count in the workup of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of blood typing in the workup of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis in the workup of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of cold agglutinin titers measurement in the workup of cold agglutinin disease?

Which infectious agents should be screened for in the evaluation of cold agglutinin disease?

How is a collagen vascular disease etiology identified in the workup of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of biopsy in the workup of cold agglutinin disease?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of cold agglutinin disease?

Treatment

How is cold agglutinin disease treated?

What is the role of plasmapheresis in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of splenectomy in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

Which diet and activity modifications are used in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of glucocorticoids in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of rituximab in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of eculizumab in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of sutimlimab in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

What is the role of blood transfusions in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

How is cold agglutinin disease treated during pregnancy?

What is cold agglutinin disease managed in surgical patients?

When should patient transfer be considered for the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

How is cold agglutinin disease prevented?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of patients with cold agglutinin disease?

Medications

What is the role of medication in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

What are precautions for the use of medications in the treatment of cold agglutinin disease?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressive Agents are used in the treatment of Cold Agglutinin Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Vitamin, Water Soluble are used in the treatment of Cold Agglutinin Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulators are used in the treatment of Cold Agglutinin Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Cold Agglutinin Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressants are used in the treatment of Cold Agglutinin Disease?