Pediatric Genu Varum Clinical Presentation

Updated: Oct 27, 2021
  • Author: Peter M Stevens, MD; Chief Editor: Jeffrey D Thomson, MD  more...
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History and Physical Examination

It is most helpful to ask the child with genu varum to stand with feet together and with equal weight on both legs. The intercondylar distance is easy to measure and demonstrate to the concerned parents. Observe the gait noting the foot progression angle and the presence or absence of a lateral thrust. In the prone position, measure the inward-outward hip rotation (femoral torsion) and the thigh-foot axis (tibial torsion).

In addition, examine the entire spine and record the stature of the child. Document the range of hip motion, including abduction in flexion and extension. Children with dysplasias or metabolic disorders may have coxa vara, limited hip abduction, and a positive Trendelenburg gait. They may also have ankle varus with medial thigh and calf creases.