Ankle Arthroscopy Medication

Updated: Apr 26, 2021
  • Author: Vinod K Panchbhavi, MD, FACS, FAOA, FABOS, FAAOS; Chief Editor: Thomas M DeBerardino, MD, FAAOS, FAOA  more...
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Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy are to reduce morbidity and prevent complications.


Local Anesthetics, Amides

Class Summary

Local anesthetics block the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses.

Bupivacaine and epinephrine (Marcaine with Epinephrine, Vivacaine, Sensorcaine with Epinephrine)

These decrease permeability to sodium ions in neuronal membranes. This results in the inhibition of depolarization, blocking the transmission of nerve impulses. Epinephrine prolongs the duration of the anesthetic effects from bupivacaine by causing vasoconstriction of the blood vessels surrounding the nerve axons.

An 18-gauge needle is introduced medial to the tibialis anterior tendon, and 15-20 mL of saline or 0.25% bupivacaine solution with epinephrine is injected to distend the ankle joint.