Angina Pectoris Questions & Answers

Updated: Jul 19, 2018
  • Author: Jamshid Alaeddini, MD, FACC, FHRS; Chief Editor: Eric H Yang, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is angina pectoris?

What are the signs and symptoms of angina pectoris?

Which physical findings are characteristic of angina pectoris?

What is included in the workup for angina pectoris?

What are general treatment measures for angina pectoris?

What are the treatment goals for underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with angina pectoris?

What is the management approach for established coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with angina pectoris?

Which pharmacologic therapies may be considered for angina pectoris?

In which patient groups is revascularization therapy for angina pectoris indicated?

What is the basis for selection of coronary revascularization procedure in angina pectoris?

Which procedures may be performed in the treatment of angina pectoris?

What causes angina pectoris?

What is the pathophysiology of angina pectoris?

What is the role of adenosine in the pathophysiology of angina pectoris?

What are the main determinants of myocardial metabolic activity in the pathophysiology of angina pectoris?

What is the pathophysiology of the coronary flow reserve (CFR) in angina pectoris?

What is the pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia in angina pectoris?

What is the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in angina pectoris?

What is the role of coronary spasm in the pathophysiology of angina pectoris?

What causes a syndrome X etiology of angina pectoris?

What is the role of extravascular forces in the pathophysiology of angina pectoris?

What is the prevalence of silent ischemia in angina pectoris?

What are the causes of angina pectoris?

What causes a decrease in myocardial blood supply in angina pectoris?

Which types of congenital anomalies cause angina pectoris?

What are the risk factors for angina pectoris?

What are precipitating factors in angina pectoris?

What are preventive factors in angina pectoris?

What is the prevalence of angina pectoris in the US?

What are the racial predilections of angina pectoris?

How does the prevalence of angina pectoris vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of angina pectoris vary by age?

What is the prognosis of angina pectoris?

What are the mortality rates for angina pectoris?

What are complications of angina pectoris?

What is included in patient education for angina pectoris?

Presentation

Which clinical history is characteristic of angina pectoris?

What is angina decubitus?

What are the physical findings characteristic of angina pectoris?

DDX

How is angina pectoris diagnosed?

What are conditions to consider in the differential diagnoses of angina pectoris?

What are the differential diagnoses for Angina Pectoris?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of angina pectoris?

What chest radiography findings suggest angina pectoris?

What is the role of exercise stress testing in the workup of angina pectoris?

What is the role of stress echocardiography in the workup of angina pectoris?

What is the role of nuclear imaging in the workup of angina pectoris?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of angina pectoris?

What is the role of CT angiography in the workup of angina pectoris?

What is the role of ECG in the workup of angina pectoris?

What is the role of exercise with ECG monitoring in the workup of angina pectoris?

What is the role of ambulatory ECG monitoring in the workup of angina pectoris?

What is the role of coronary angiography in the workup of angina pectoris?

What is the role of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in the management of angina pectoris?

What is the role of enhanced external counterpulsation in the management of angina pectoris?

What is the Canadian Cardiovascular Society grading scale for the classification of angina pectoris severity?

How is the New York Heart Association classification used in the treatment of angina pectoris?

Treatment

What are the main goals of treatment in angina pectoris?

What are the initial treatment options to reduce symptoms of angina pectoris?

What are the options for managing coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with angina pectoris?

What is the role of lipid management in the treatment of angina pectoris?

What is the role of aspirin in the treatment of angina pectoris?

What is the role of hormone replacement therapy for the treatment of angina pectoris?

What is the role of drug treatment for angina pectoris?

Which dietary and activity modifications are used in the treatment of angina pectoris?

What is the role of revascularization therapy in angina pectoris?

When is percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and coronary stenting indicated for angina pectoris?

What is the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for treatment of angina pectoris?

What is the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the treatment of angina pectoris?

What is the efficacy of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the treatment of angina pectoris?

What is the role of laser transmyocardial revascularization in the treatment of angina pectoris?

What is the role of human CD34+ cells in the treatment of angina pectoris?

What is the Coronary Sinus Reducer and how is it used to treat angina pectoris?

How is angina pectoris prevented?

Guidelines

What are the guidelines for lipid management in angina pectoris?

Which organizations have issued guidelines for the medical management of angina pectoris?

According to the ACCF-AHA-AATS-PCNA-SCAI guidelines, what should be included in patient education for medical management of angina pectoris?

What are the ACCF-AHA-AATS-PCNA-SCAI guidelines class I recommendations for medical management of angina pectoris?

What are the ACCF-AHA-AATS-PCNA-SCAI guidelines class IIa recommendations for medical management of angina pectoris?

What are the ACCF-AHA-AATS-PCNA-SCAI guidelines class III recommendations for medical management of angina pectoris?

What are the ESC guidelines class I recommendations for medical management of angina pectoris?

What are the ESC guidelines class IIa recommendations for medical management of angina pectoris?

What are the ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guidelines class I recommendations for the surgical management of angina pectoris?

What are the ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guidelines class IIa recommendations for the surgical management of angina pectoris?

What are the ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guidelines class III recommendations for the surgical management of angina pectoris?

Which guidelines have been issued for duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in the treatment of angina pectoris?

What are the ACC/AHA guidelines class I recommendations for duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in angina pectoris?

What are the ACC/AHA guidelines class IIb recommendations for duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in angina pectoris?

What are the ACC/AHA guidelines class III recommendations for duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in angina pectoris?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for angina pectoris?

Which medications in the drug class Anti-ischemic agents, miscellaneous are used in the treatment of Angina Pectoris?

Which medications in the drug class Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are used in the treatment of Angina Pectoris?

Which medications in the drug class Long-acting nitroglycerins are used in the treatment of Angina Pectoris?

Which medications in the drug class Short-acting nitroglycerins are used in the treatment of Angina Pectoris?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium channel blockers are used in the treatment of Angina Pectoris?

Which medications in the drug class Beta-adrenergic blocking agents are used in the treatment of Angina Pectoris?

Which medications in the drug class Antiplatelet agents are used in the treatment of Angina Pectoris?