Aortic Regurgitation Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 19, 2018
  • Author: Stanley S Wang, JD, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Terrence X O'Brien, MD, MS, FACC  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What causes aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What conditions have aortic abnormalities that can cause aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are common causes of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the prognosis of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What resources are available for patients with aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the pathogenesis of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the pathophysiology of acute aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the pathophysiology of chronic aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What causes acute aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What causes chronic aortic regurgitation (AR)?

Which connective tissue disorders cause aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the prevalence of aortic regurgitation (AR) in the US?

What is the international prevalence of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the demographics of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the relationship between aortic regurgitation (AR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)?

What is the prognosis of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the clinical course and prognosis of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the morbidity and mortality of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the causes of death in severe chronic aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the annual mortality rate of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the prevalence of aortic regurgitation (AR) in patients with rheumatic valve disease?

What is the prognosis of aortic regurgitation (AR) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)?

Presentation

What is the clinical presentation of acute aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the clinical presentation of chronic aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the symptoms of severe chronic aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the physical findings in aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the symptoms of acute aortic regurgitation (AR)?

How are blood pressure readings characterized in severe chronic aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What physical exam findings are associated with widened pulse pressure in chronic aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the physical exam findings in chronic aortic regurgitation (AR)?

DDX

Which conditions are associated with a widened pulse pressure?

What are the differential diagnoses for Aortic Regurgitation?

Workup

What are the approach considerations in the workup of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

Which lab studies are indicated in the workup of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the role of exercise treadmill testing in the workup of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the challenges of echocardiography in the workup of aortic regurgitation (AR) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)?

What is the role of chest radiography in the workup of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the CXR findings in acute aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the CXR findings in chronic aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the role of radionuclide imaging in the workup of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the traditional angiographic grading for aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the role of cardiac CT scanning and MRI in the workup of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the electrocardiographic findings in aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the indications for cardiac catheterization in patients with aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the histologic findings in aortic regurgitation (AR)?

Treatment

What are the approach considerations in the treatment of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

When is inpatient care indicated in the treatment of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

When is transfer indicated for patients with aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the emergency department care for aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What emergency care is indicated for acute aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What emergency care is indicated for chronic aortic regurgitation (AR)?

When are vasodilators indicated in the treatment of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

When is antibiotic prophylaxis indicated in patients with aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the role of valve replacement in the treatment of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

Are mechanical or bioprosthetic aortic valves preferred in the treatment of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What is the role of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in the treatment of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the treatment options for aortic regurgitation (AR) due to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)?

What dietary and activity recommendations are indicated for patients with aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What long-term monitoring is indicated in patients with aortic regurgitation (AR)?

Guidelines

What are the AHA/ACC stages of chronic aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the guidelines on intervention in cases of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the AHA/ACC guidelines on vasodilator therapy in the treatment of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

When is vasodilator therapy not indicated in the treatment of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the ESC/EACTS guidelines on the treatment of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

What are the AHA/ACC guidelines on surgical intervention for aortic regurgitation (AR)?

Medications

Which medications are indicated in the treatment of aortic regurgitation (AR)?

Which medications in the drug class Adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Aortic Regurgitation?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics are used in the treatment of Aortic Regurgitation?

Which medications in the drug class Cardiovascular, Other are used in the treatment of Aortic Regurgitation?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium channel blockers are used in the treatment of Aortic Regurgitation?

Which medications in the drug class Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) are used in the treatment of Aortic Regurgitation?

Which medications in the drug class Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Aortic Regurgitation?