Cardiac Tamponade Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 28, 2018
  • Author: Chakri Yarlagadda, MD, FACC, FSCAI, FASNC, CCDS; Chief Editor: Terrence X O'Brien, MD, MS, FACC  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is cardiac tamponade?

What are the signs and symptoms of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade?

What is the definitive therapy for cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of medical therapy in the management of cardiac tamponade?

What is cardiac tamponade?

Which factors affect the mortality risk of cardiac tamponade?

What is the anatomy of the pericardium relevant to cardiac tamponade?

What are the phases of hemodynamic changes in cardiac tamponade?

How is pericardial effusion characterized in cardiac tamponade?

What is the underlying pathogenic process of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of systemic venous return in the pathophysiology of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of pericardial fluid in the pathophysiology of cardiac tamponade?

What are the causes of cardiac tamponade?

What are the possible causes of pericarditis in patients with cardiac tamponade?

What are the risk factors for cardiac tamponade in patients undergoing heart valve surgery?

What is the incidence of cardiac tamponade in the US?

How does the incidence of cardiac tamponade vary by sex?

Which patient groups are at increased risk for cardiac tamponade?

Which factors affect the prognosis of cardiac tamponade?

How does reexploration for bleeding or tamponade following cardiac surgery affect the prognosis?

How do multiple mediastinal chest tubes affect the prognosis of cardiac tamponade?

What are the mortality rates for cardiac tamponade?

Presentation

What are the symptoms of acute cardiac tamponade?

What should be the focus of history to identify the probable etiology of cardiac tamponade?

Why is the y descent abolished in cardiac tamponade?

What are the most common symptoms and signs of cardiac tamponade?

Which findings characterize the Beck triad (acute compression triad) in cardiac tamponade?

What is pulsus paradoxus in cardiac tamponade?

How is pulsus paradoxus measured in cardiac tamponade?

Besides cardiac tamponade, in which other conditions is pulsus paradoxus observed?

When is pulsus paradoxus absent in cardiac tamponade?

What is the Kussmaul sign in cardiac tamponade?

What is the Ewart sign in cardiac tamponade?

What are the signs of dysphoria in cardiac tamponade?

What is the prevalence of low-pressure tamponade?

DDX

What are the benefits of early diagnosis of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of pleural effusions in the development of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of tension pneumopericardium in the development of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of respiratory failure in the development of cardiac tamponade?

What are the differential diagnoses for Cardiac Tamponade?

Workup

What is the key to reducing the mortality risk of cardiac tamponade?

Which testing is performed in the evaluation of cardiac tamponade?

What is the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases scoring system for treatment of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of chest radiography in the evaluation of cardiac tamponade?

Which finding on chest radiography suggests cardiac tamponade in children?

Which finding on CT scan suggests cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of echocardiography in the evaluation of cardiac tamponade?

Which conditions that may stimulate pericardial effusion can be identified with 2-D echocardiography?

What is the role of lab studies in the evaluation of cardiac tamponade?

Which 12-lead ECG findings suggest cardiac tamponade?

What is the significance of a finding of electrical alternans in the evaluation of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of pulse-oximetry in the evaluation of cardiac tamponade?

How is Swan-Ganz catheterization performed in the workup of cardiac tamponade?

How is the inspiratory traction sign identified in the workup of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of pericardial biopsy in the workup of cardiac tamponade?

Treatment

What is included in the medical treatment of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of positive-pressure mechanical ventilation in the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

What is included in the inpatient care of cardiac tamponade?

Which specialist consultations are needed for the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

How should patients be monitored following treatment of cardiac tamponade?

What is the definitive therapy for cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of emergency subxiphoid percutaneous drainage in the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of echocardiographically-guided pericardiocentesis in the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy in the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

What is included in surgical care for hemodynamically unstable cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of pericardium sclerosing in the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of a pericardio-peritoneal shunt in the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of pericardiectomy in the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

What is the role of a video-assisted thoracoscopy in the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

Which medications in the drug class Cardiovascular, Other are used in the treatment of Cardiac Tamponade?