Dilated Cardiomyopathy Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 28, 2018
  • Author: Vinh Q Nguyen, MD, FACC; Chief Editor: Gyanendra K Sharma, MD, FACC, FASE  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

How is dilated cardiomyopathy characterized?

What are the signs and symptoms of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What are the signs of heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which physical findings suggest dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which neck exam findings suggest dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which cardiac findings suggest dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which tests are performed in the workup of suspected dilated cardiomyopathy?

When is endomyocardial biopsy indicated in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which drug classes are used in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which surgical interventions are used for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of neurohormonal activation in the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of circulating cytokines in the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What are causes of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of viral myocarditis to the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which viral infections may cause dilated cardiomyopathy?

How is viral myocarditis diagnosed?

How is viral myocarditis treated?

What causes familial dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of anthracyclines in the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which collagen-vascular diseases are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy?

How is granulomatous dilated cardiomyopathy (sarcoidosis) diagnosed and treated?

How is giant cell myocarditis (GCM) diagnosed and treated?

What causes hypertensive dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is Chagas dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is Takotsubo (stress) dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is HIV-associated dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of high-output heart failure in the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of alcohol in the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of cocaine in the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is peripartum dilated cardiomyopathy?

What causes infiltrative dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of amyloidosis in the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of Fabry disease in the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which infiltrative diseases resemble hypertrophic or hypertensive heart disease?

What is cardiac sarcoidosis?

What is granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener cardiomyopathy)?

What is hemochromatosis (iron overload cardiomyopathy)?

What is tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy?

What is the prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the prognosis of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of CPX in determining the prognosis of dilated cardiomyopathy?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings indicate the severity of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the focus of clinical history to evaluate dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which heart exam findings are characteristic of dilated cardiomyopathy?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Dilated Cardiomyopathy?

Workup

Which studies are included in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of a CBC count and metabolic panel in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of liver function tests in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of cardiac biomarkers in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of BNP assays in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of chest radiography in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of cardiac CT scanning in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of ECG in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of right-sided heart catheterization (RHC) in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of endomyocardial biopsy in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which systemic illnesses are associated with giant cell myocarditis in dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of dilated cardiomyopathy during pregnancy or in AIDS-related myocarditis?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of oxygen consumption testing in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of a central venous line or pulmonary artery catheter in the workup of dilated cardiomyopathy?

How is dilated cardiomyopathy staged?

Treatment

How is dilated cardiomyopathy treated?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What are the surgical options for the treatment of refractory dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the initial treatment for severe acute dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of blood pressure control in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of ACE inhibitors in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of beta blockers in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of ARBs in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of aldosterone antagonists in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of cardiac glycosides in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of loop diuretics in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of antiarrhythmics in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of vasodilators in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of nesiritide (Natrecor) in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of inotropic agents in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of anticoagulants in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of implantable left LVADs in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the efficacy of the HeartMate II LVAD in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the efficacy of the HeartWare Ventricular Assist System in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of cardiac resynchronization therapy (biventricular pacing) in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

When is cardiac resynchronization therapy (biventricular pacing) indicated in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of AICDs in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

When is an ICD indicated in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the efficacy of AICDs in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

When is heart transplantation indicated in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which dietary and activity modifications are used in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What are the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of gene therapies in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of myoblast transplantation in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of stem cells in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

What is the role of CardioMEMS in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with dilated cardiomyopathy?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy?

Which medications in the drug class Anticoagulants, Cardiovascular are used in the treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?

Which medications in the drug class Inotropic Agents are used in the treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?

Which medications in the drug class Vasodilators are used in the treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?

Which medications in the drug class Antidysrhythmics, III are used in the treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Loop are used in the treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?

Which medications in the drug class Aldosterone Antagonists, Selective are used in the treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?

Which medications in the drug class Cardiovascular, Others are used in the treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?

Which medications in the drug class Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) are used in the treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?

Which medications in the drug class ACE Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?