Mitral Regurgitation Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 28, 2018
  • Author: Ivan Hanson, MD; Chief Editor: Terrence X O'Brien, MD, MS, FACC  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

How is mitral regurgitation (MR) defined?

What are the signs and symptoms of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Which chest radiographic findings suggest mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the ESC/EACTS echographic criteria for severe mitral regurgitation (MR)?

According to the ACC/AHA guidelines, when is transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) indicated in the evaluation of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

According to the ACC/AHA guidelines, when is serial transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) indicated in the management of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

According to the ACC/AHA guidelines, when is transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) indicated in the evaluation of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Which tests are performed in addition to echocardiography in the workup of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

How is mitral regurgitation (MR) treated?

According to the ACC/AHA guidelines, when is surgery indicated in the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

According to the ESC/EACT guidelines, when is surgery indicated in the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is the pathophysiology of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is the pathophysiology of acute mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is the pathophysiology of chronic compensated mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is the pathophysiology of chronic decompensated mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What causes acute mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What causes chronic mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is the prevalence of mitral regurgitation (MR) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is the prognosis of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the mortality rates of chronic severe degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the mortality rates of mitral valve surgery for the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Which factors increase the risk of mortality from mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of acute mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Which features of mitral regurgitation (MR) should be noted if murmurs are present?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Mitral Regurgitation?

Workup

What are the ACC guidelines on the assessment of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is the role of chest radiography in the workup of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

How does the ESC/EACTS guidelines define severe mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the ACC/AHA guidelines for the use of TTE in the evaluation of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the echocardiographic parameters of severity of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the ACC/AHA guidelines for the use of serial TTE in the long-term monitoring of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the ACC/AHA guidelines for the use of TEE in the evaluation of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Which ECG findings are characteristic of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is the role of BNP assessment in the workup of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the ACC/AHA guidelines for the use of cardiac catheterization in the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Treatment

How is mitral regurgitation (MR) treated?

What is included in prehospital care for mitral regurgitation (MR)?

How is mitral regurgitation (MR) treated in the emergency department (ED)?

What is included in the medical treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is the role of antibiotics in the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Which dietary and activity modifications are used in the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What is the role of percutaneous interventions in the treatment of mitral regurgitation?

What are the possible complication of mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the possible complications of mitral regurgitation (MR) surgery?

Guidelines

What are the ESC/EACTS diagnostic guidelines for severe mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the 2017 updates to the ACC/AHA guidelines for mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the ESC/EACTS guidelines for mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the ESC/EACTS treatment guidelines for chronic secondary mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the AATS guidelines for mitral regurgitation (MR)?

How is chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) staged?

What are the ACC/AHA diagnostic guidelines for mitral regurgitation?

What are the ACC/AHA guidelines on acute mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the treatment guidelines for primary mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the treatment guidelines for secondary mitral regurgitation (MR)?

What are the AHA revised diagnostic guidelines for infective endocarditis?

What are the AHA revised treatment guidelines for infective endocarditis?

Medications

What is the goal of drug treatment for mitral regurgitation (MR)?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics, Prophylactic are used in the treatment of Mitral Regurgitation?

Which medications in the drug class Inotropic Agents are used in the treatment of Mitral Regurgitation?

Which medications in the drug class Nitrates are used in the treatment of Mitral Regurgitation?

Which medications in the drug class Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Mitral Regurgitation?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics are used in the treatment of Mitral Regurgitation?