Mitral Stenosis Clinical Presentation

Updated: Feb 02, 2018
  • Author: Claudia Dima, MD, FACC; Chief Editor: Terrence X O'Brien, MD, MS, FACC  more...
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Presentation

History

Symptoms of mitral stenosis usually manifest during the third or fourth decade of life and nearly half of the patients do not recall a history of acute rheumatic fever.

Patients are generally asymptomatic at rest during the early stage of the disease. However, factors that increase heart rate such as fever, severe anemia, thyrotoxicosis, exercise, excitement, pregnancy, and atrial fibrillation may result in dyspnea.

Nearly 15% of patients develop embolic episodes that are usually associated with atrial fibrillation. Rarely, embolic episodes may occur even in the patient with sinus rhythm. Systemic embolization may lead to stroke, renal failure, or myocardial infarction.

Hoarseness can develop from compression of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve against the pulmonary artery by the enlarged left atrium. Also, compression of bronchi by the enlarged left atrium can cause persistent cough.

Hemoptysis may occur and is usually not fatal.

Pregnant women with mild mitral stenosis may become symptomatic during their second trimester because of the increase in blood volume and cardiac output.

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Physical

The presence of mitral facies (pinkish-purple patches on the cheeks) indicate chronic severe mitral stenosis leading to reduced cardiac output and vasoconstriction.

Jugular vein distension may be seen. In the patient with sinus rhythm, a prominent a wave reflects increased right atrial pressure from pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure. A prominent v wave is seen with tricuspid regurgitation. The apical impulse may be laterally displaced or not palpable, especially in cases of severe mitral stenosis. This can be explained by decreased left ventricular filling. Rarely, a diastolic thrill can be felt at the apex with the patient in the left lateral recumbent position. See the videos below.

Apical 4-chamber view demonstrating restricted opening of the anterior and posterior mitral valve leaflet with diastolic doming of anterior leaflet with left atrial enlargement.
Apical 4-chamber view with color Doppler demonstrating aliasing in the atrial side of the mitral valve consistent with increased gradient across the valve. This figure also shows mitral regurgitation and left atrial enlargement.

Often a right ventricular lift is palpable in the left parasternal region in the patient with pulmonary hypertension. A P2 may be palpable in the 2nd left intercostal space.

The auscultatory findings characteristic of mitral stenosis are a loud first heart sound, an opening snap, and a diastolic rumble.

The first heart sound is accentuated because of a wide closing excursion of the mitral leaflets. The degree of loudness of the first heart sound depends on the pliability of the mitral valve. The intensity of the first heart sound diminishes as the valve becomes more fibrotic, calcified, and thickened.

The second heart sound is normally split, and the pulmonic component is accentuated if pulmonary hypertension is present. The opening snap follows the second heart sound. The sudden tensing of the valve leaflets after they have completed their opening excursion causes an opening snap. In patients with elevated left atrial pressure and hence with severe mitral stenosis, the opening snap occurs closer to the second heart sound.

The diastolic murmur of mitral stenosis is of low pitch, rumbling in character, and best heard at the apex with the patient in the left lateral position. It commences after the opening snap of the mitral valve, and the duration of the murmur correlates with the severity of the stenosis. The murmur is accentuated by exercise, whereas it decreases with rest and Valsalva maneuver. In patients with sinus rhythm, the murmur increases in intensity during late diastole (so called, presystolic accentuation) due to increased flow across the stenotic mitral valve caused by atrial contraction.

A high-pitched decrescendo diastolic murmur secondary to pulmonary regurgitation (Graham Steell murmur) may be audible at the upper sternal border.

A pansystolic murmur of TR and an S3 originating from the right ventricle may be audible in the 4th left intercostal space in the patient with right ventricular dilatation.

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