Mitral Stenosis Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 03, 2021
  • Author: Claudia Dima, MD, FACC; Chief Editor: Terrence X O'Brien, MD, MS, FACC  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What is the clinical background of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are less common etiologies for mitral stenosis (MS)?

What is the pathophysiology of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What is the prevalence of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are the sex- and age-related demographics for mitral stenosis (MS)?

What is the prognosis of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What is the morbidity and mortality of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are the complications of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What information should be provided to patients with mitral stenosis (MS)?

Presentation

What are the symptoms of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are the signs of mitral stenosis (MS)?

How are auscultatory findings characterized in mitral stenosis (MS)?

How is the diastolic murmur of mitral stenosis (MS) characterized?

DDX

What are diagnostic considerations for mitral stenosis (MS) in pregnancy?

What other conditions should be considered in suspected mitral stenosis (MS)?

Workup

Which lab studies are indicated in the workup of mitral stenosis (MS)?

Which imaging studies are indicated in the workup of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What is the role of ECG in the workup of mitral stenosis (MS)?

When is cardiac catheterization indicated in the workup of mitral stenosis (MS)?

Treatment

What are the goals of medical treatment for mitral stenosis (MS)?

Which medications are used to treat initial symptoms of pulmonary congestion related to mitral stenosis (MS)?

How is atrial fibrillation associated with mitral stenosis (MS) treated?

What are the dietary and exercise recommendations for patients with mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are the surgical options in the treatment of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What is the role of percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty/percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) in the treatment of mitral stenosis (MS)?

How effective is percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty/percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) in the treatment of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What is the role of surgical valvotomy/valve replacement in the treatment of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What is the role of balloon-expandable valve implantation in the treatment of mitral stenosis (MS)?

Which specialist consultations are indicated in the treatment of mitral stenosis (MS)?

How can acute rheumatic fever associated with mitral stenosis (MS) be prevented?

How are patients with mitral stenosis (MS) monitored after treatment?

Guidelines

What are the ESC/EACTS recommendations on mitral stenosis (MS) in patients with permanent or paroxysmal AF?

What are the AHA/ACC stages of progression of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are the AHA/ACC and ESC/EACTS guidelines for mitral stenosis (MS) intervention?

What are the AHA/ACC guidelines for diagnostic testing and initial diagnosis of mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are the ESC/EACTS diagnostic guidelines for mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are the AHA/ACC guidelines on indications for anticoagulation in patients with mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are the AHA/ACC and ESC/EACTS recommendations on the treatment of severe mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are the AHA and ESC treatment guidelines for infective endocarditis (IE) related to mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are class I recommendations for the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) associated with mitral stenosis (MS)?

When is surgery indicated for the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are the class III recommendations for the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) related to mitral stenosis (MS)?

What are the AHA guidelines on infective endocarditis prophylaxis in the setting of mitral stenosis (MS)?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment in the treatment of mitral stenosis (MS)?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics are used in the treatment of Mitral Stenosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Mitral Stenosis?

Which medications in the drug class Beta-adrenergic blockers are used in the treatment of Mitral Stenosis?

Which medications in the drug class Anticoagulants are used in the treatment of Mitral Stenosis?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium channel blockers are used in the treatment of Mitral Stenosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antiarrhythmics are used in the treatment of Mitral Stenosis?