Myocarditis Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Dec 19, 2016
  • Author: Wai Hong Wilson Tang, MD; Chief Editor: Henry H Ooi, MD, MRCPI  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

A new entity of transient cardiac dysfunction has evolved, known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy or transient apical ballooning syndrome. It is characterized by severe hypokinesis of the anteroapical and inferoapical regions of the heart for unclear reason, and often with complete resolution. Many cases have been associated with a psychological or stressful event. Some have suggested a myocarditis nature of the condition, but the precise understanding of this syndrome remains unclear.

Conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis of myocarditis include the following:

  • Coronary artery vasospasm

  • Isolated coronary artery anomalies

  • Myocardial infarction

  • Myocardial ischemia

  • Cardiogenic pulmonary edema

  • High-altitude pulmonary edema

  • Neurogenic pulmonary edema

  • Interstitial (nonidiopathic) pulmonary fibrosis

  • Sudden cardiac death

  • Unstable angina

  • Ventricular tachycardia

Differential Diagnoses