Pericardial Effusion Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 28, 2018
  • Author: William J Strimel, DO, FACP; Chief Editor: Terrence X O'Brien, MD, MS, FACC  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is pericardial effusion defined?

What are the signs and symptoms of pericardial effusion?

Which invasive procedures are performed in the workup of pericardial effusion?

Which physical findings suggest pericardial effusion?

Which lab tests are performed in the workup of suspected pericardial effusion?

Which lab tests for infectious diseases are performed in the workup of pericardial effusion?

Which imaging studies are performed in the workup of pericardial effusion?

How is pericardial effusion treated?

Which medications are used in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is included in hemodynamic support for pericardial effusion?

Which surgical intervention are used in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is pericardial effusion?

What is the embryology of the heart relevant to pericardial effusion?

What is the physiology of cardiac fluids relevant to pericardial effusion?

What is the pathophysiology of pericardial effusion?

What causes pericardial effusion?

What are the infectious causes of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of neoplastic disease in the etiology of pericardial effusion?

What are the iatrogenic causes of pericardial effusion?

What are the less common causes of pericardial effusion?

What is the prevalence of pericardial effusion in the US?

What are the racial predilections of pericardial effusion?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of pericardial effusion?

Which factors adversely affect the prognosis of acute pericardial effusion?

What is the prognosis of pericardial effusion?

What are the morbidity and mortality associated with pericardial effusion?

What are the morbidity and mortality associated with pericardial tamponade?

Presentation

What are the cardiovascular symptoms of pericardial effusion?

What are the respiratory symptoms of pericardial effusion?

Which cardiovascular findings suggest pericardial effusion?

Which respiratory findings suggest pericardial effusion?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Pericardial Effusion?

Workup

How is pericardial effusion diagnosed?

What is the role of lab tests in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of cardiac enzymes measurement in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of pericardial fluid analysis in the workup of pericardial effusion?

How is tuberculous pericarditis diagnosed in patients with pericardial effusion?

What is the role of chest radiography in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of two-dimensional echocardiography in the workup of pericardial effusion?

Which echocardiographic findings aid in the diagnosis of pericardial effusion?

How is pericardial effusion classified?

What is the role of Doppler echocardiography in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of transesophageal echocardiography in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of intracardiac echocardiography in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What are the possible false-positive echocardiographic findings of pericardial effusion?

What are the advantages of CT scans and MRI in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of ECG in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What are the stages of acute pericardial effusion on ECG?

Which ECG findings are characteristic of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of pericardiocentesis in the workup of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of pericardioscopy in the workup of pericardial effusion?

Treatment

Which medications are used in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

Which pericardial sclerosing agents are used in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

Which surgical interventions are used in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

When is inpatient care indicated for pericardial effusion?

What is included in long-term monitoring of pericardial effusion?

When is patient transfer indicated in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with pericardial effusion?

What is the role of aspirin/NSAIDs in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of colchicine in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of steroids in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of antibiotics in the treatment of purulent pericardial effusion?

What is the role of antibiotics in the treatment of tuberculous pericardial effusion?

What is the role of hemodynamic support in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of pericardiocentesis in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of balloon pericardiotomy in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of CT-guided pericardiostomy in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of a subxiphoid pericardial window in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of thoracotomy in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of median sternotomy in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

What is the role of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of pericardial effusion?

Which medications in the drug class Anti-inflammatory Agents are used in the treatment of Pericardial Effusion?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Pericardial Effusion?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are used in the treatment of Pericardial Effusion?