Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Questions & Answers

Updated: Jul 23, 2020
  • Author: Ali A Sovari, MD, FACP, FACC; Chief Editor: Gyanendra K Sharma, MD, FACC, FASE  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What are the pathophysiologic mechanisms that cause cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What causes increased hydrostatic pressure in cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What are major complications of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

How is recurrence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) prevented?

What causes cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the pathophysiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of lymphatics in the pathophysiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What are the stages of fluid accumulation in the pathogenesis of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of atrial outflow obstruction in the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of LV systolic dysfunction in the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of LV diastolic dysfunction in the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of dysrhythmias in the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of LV hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy in the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of LV volume overload in the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of myocardial infarction in the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of LV outflow obstruction in the etiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the prognosis of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

Which cardiovascular findings are characteristic of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of severe cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

DDX

How is cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) differentiated from noncardiogenic pulmonary edema (NCPE)?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the evaluation of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of electrocardiography in the evaluation of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of CT scanning in the evaluation of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) testing, and why is it performed in the workup of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

How is brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) testing used in the evaluation of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What are the cutoff values for brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) testing in the evaluation of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

How is N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) testing used in the evaluation of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of radiography in the workup of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of electrocardiography in the workup of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of a pulmonary arterial catheter in the workup of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

Treatment

What is the initial treatment for cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What are the goals of medical treatment for cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of ultrafiltration in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

When is intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) indicated in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What dietary restrictions are needed during the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of noninvasive pressure-support ventilation (NPSV) in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What are the noninvasive pressure-support ventilation (NPSV) options for the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of mechanical ventilation in cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of nitroglycerin (NTG) in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of diuretics in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of morphine in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of nesiritide in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of ACE inhibitors in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of nitroprusside in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

Which medications are used for inotropic support in cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of dobutamine in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of dopamine in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of norepinephrine in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDIs) in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of calcium sensitizers in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of tolvaptan in the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

How does intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) stabilize hemodynamically unstable patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

How is intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) performed in the management of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the efficacy of intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) for cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What are contraindications for intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) for cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What are possible complications of intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) for cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is the role of ultrafiltration (UF) for the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

What is included in inpatient care for cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

When is transfer of patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) indicated?

Which specialist consultations are needed for the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

Medications

Which medications are used for the treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE)?

Which medications in the drug class Inotropic Agents are used in the treatment of Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema?

Which medications in the drug class Afterload Reducers are used in the treatment of Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema?

Which medications in the drug class Preload Reducers are used in the treatment of Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema?