Sinus Node Dysfunction Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 30, 2018
  • Author: Bharat K Kantharia, MD, FRCP, FAHA, FACC, FESC, FHRS; Chief Editor: Mikhael F El-Chami, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

How is sinus node dysfunction (SND) characterized?

Which ECG abnormalities are characteristic of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the pathophysiology of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What are the signs and symptoms of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the natural history of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What causes sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of abnormal automaticity (sinus arrest) in the etiology of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of sinus node degeneration in the etiology of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of medications in the etiology of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Which childhood and familial diseases cause sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Which infiltrative diseases cause sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Which inflammatory diseases cause sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of the SA artery in sinus node dysfunction?

What is the role of trauma in the etiology of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Which disorders are associated with sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What are surgical causes of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of rheumatic fever in the etiology of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Which endocrine-metabolic disorders are associated with sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Which factors increase the risk of sinus node dysfunction (SND) after catheter ablation to restore sinus rhythm?

What is the prevalence of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the prognosis of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What are the possible complications of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is included in patient education about sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnosis of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

How is sinus node dysfunction (SND) diagnosed?

What are the differential diagnoses for Sinus Node Dysfunction?

Workup

Which tests are performed in the workup of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of echocardiography in the workup of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of transesophageal atrial pacing in the workup of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of exercise stress testing in the workup of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of ECG in the workup of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of ambulatory ECG (Holter) monitoring in the workup of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of pharmacologic stimulation tests in the workup of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of electrophysiologic (EP) studies in the workup of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What are the electrophysiologic (EP) criteria for diagnosis of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

How is sinus node recovery time (SNRT) determined?

How is sinoatrial conduction time (SACT) defined?

What is the role of sinoatrial conduction time (SACT) in the workup of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Treatment

How is sinus node dysfunction (SND) treated?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of pacemaker therapy in the treatment of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What are the guidelines for permanent pacing in sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the comparison of single- and dual-chamber pacemakers for the treatment of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What are the pacemaker programming features used in the treatment of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is the role of ivabradine in the treatment of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

What is included in long-term monitoring of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

How is sinus node dysfunction (SND) monitored during pregnancy?

What is the role of genetic therapies in the treatment of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Guidelines

What are the ACC/AHA/HRS treatment guidelines for sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of sinus node dysfunction (SND)?

Which medications in the drug class Cardiovascular, Other are used in the treatment of Sinus Node Dysfunction?

Which medications in the drug class Beta1/Beta2 Adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Sinus Node Dysfunction?

Which medications in the drug class Anticholinergic Agents are used in the treatment of Sinus Node Dysfunction?