Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Questions & Answers

Updated: Jan 08, 2017
  • Author: Christopher R Ellis, MD, FACC, FHRS; Chief Editor: Mikhael F El-Chami, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the clinical manifestations of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the signs and symptoms of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in infants?

What are the signs and symptoms of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in a verbal child?

What are the signs and symptoms of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in older patients?

Which physical findings are characteristic of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which cardiac defects may be present in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of lab studies in the evaluation of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of electrocardiogram (ECG) in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of stress testing in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of electrophysiologic studies (EPS) in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the treatment options for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome associated with arrhythmias?

How are tachycardias treated in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the treatments for atrial flutter/fibrillation in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the initial treatment of hemodynamically unstable tachycardia in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When is radiofrequency (RF) ablation indicated for the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When is surgical open heart treatment indicated in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the medications used in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is preexcitation in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome defined?

What is Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the current definition for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the classic electrocardiogram (ECG) findings associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the increased cardiac risks for patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the significance of a concealed bypass tract in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the risk of sudden cardiac death in patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the pathophysiology of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of accessory pathways in the pathogenesis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is the degree of preexcitation on a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) estimated in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the types of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of orthodromic tachycardia in the pathogenesis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is the orthodromic tachycardia characterized on ECG in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of concealed accessory pathways in the pathogenesis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is orthodromic tachycardia differentiated from AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is antidromic tachycardia in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is antidromic tachycardia characterized on ECG in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the prevalence of antidromic and orthodromic tachycardia in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What causes of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the familial form of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the association between Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome and autosomal dominant familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

How does infantile Pompe disease cause Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of MYH6 variants in the etiology of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) in the etiology of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of the Ebstein anomaly in the etiology of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of preexcitation in the etiology of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the prevalence of ventricular preexcitation in the US?

What is the incidence of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in the US?

What is the incidence of tachycardia in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in the US?

What are the most common accessory pathways involved in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in the US?

What is the prevalence of reciprocating tachycardia in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the global incidence and prevalence of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How does the prevalence of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome vary by age?

How does the prevalence of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome vary by sex?

What are the racial predilections of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the prognosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the prognosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in asymptomatic patients with only preexcitation on ECG?

What is the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are risk factors for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the death rates for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the risks factors atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the risk factors for ventricular fibrillation (VF) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the morbidities associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the complications of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the importance of patient education for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What do patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome need to carry with them?

What information about their treatment should patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome be given?

Presentation

What is the presentation of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the signs and symptoms of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in infants?

What are the signs and symptoms of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in children?

What are the signs and symptoms of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which tachycardias most commonly produce symptoms in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the clinical progression of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the symptoms of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What causes syncope in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What causes polyuria in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which cardiac exam findings are characteristic of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the physical findings characteristic of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in children?

What are the physical findings characteristic of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the physical findings characteristic of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in infants with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which cardiac defects may be present in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When do findings of congenital heart defects (CHDs) or cardiomyopathy become apparent in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the incidence of Ebstein anomaly in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the physical findings of glycogen-storage diseases in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are congenital heart diseases (CHDs) associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the appearance of abnormal QRS complexes in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

DDX

What are the clinical manifestations of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the most common mechanism of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in children?

How is an automatic mechanism differentiated from reentry in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is a regular tachycardia differentiated from Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which conditions with paroxysms of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) need to be differentiated from Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are Mahaim fibers?

What are the electrocardiogram (ECG) findings if Mahaim fibers are present?

How do atriofascicular tracts help differentiate Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome from preexcited tachycardia caused by Mahaim fibers?

What are the diagnostic considerations for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in the presence of left free wall bypass tract atrioventricular (AV) reentrant tachycardia (AVRT)?

Which electrocardiogram result rules out Mahaim fibers in the differential diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is Lown-Ganong-Levine (LGL) syndrome differentiated from Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How are entities that involve wide-QRS supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) distinguished in the differential diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How are nodoventricular or fasciculoventricular tracts differentiated from Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which tachycardias are associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome when the accessory pathway (AP) is just a bystander?

What are the clinical presentations of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF)?

What causes sudden cardiac death in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome with AF?

Which patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome have a long accessory pathway (AP) refractory period?

How does intermittent preexcitation affect the disease course of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in children?

What are the differential diagnoses for Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome?

Workup

What determines the extent of workup for suspected Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome diagnosed?

What should be included in the evaluation of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which blood studies are used to rule out noncardiac causes of tachycardia in the evaluation of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of blood serum measurement of medications in the management of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How are cardiac dysrhythmias diagnosed and managed in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How are accessory pathways (APs) diagnosed in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of ventriculoatrial (VA) interval in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is tachycardia initiated in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which ECG finding excludes an accessory AV pathway as part of the reentrant circuit in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the characteristic features of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome on ECG?

How might the morphology of the electrocardiogram (ECG) for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome vary?

What is characteristic of the electrical impulses on ECG in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Why does the QRS interval widen in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are type A and B Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is Lown-Ganong-Levine (LGL) syndrome differentiated from Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome on ECG?

When does an ECG appear normal in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is latent AP in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which findings on ECG suggest a concealed AP in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the most common dysrhythmias in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which findings on ECG suggest ORT in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) differentiated from ORT in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome dysrhythmia?

Which finding on ECG suggests antidromic circus movement tachycardias (CMTs) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are possible outcomes of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome treated with adenosine?

What is the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are possible complications of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are ventricular rates in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which ECG findings suggest sympathetic discharge due to hypotension in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which ECG finding suggests AF through an AP in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is the location of an accessory pathway (AP) identified in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the limitations of algorithms to predict the location of the AP in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How are negative delta waves used to locate the AP in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the algorithm for location of AP in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome based on the polarity of the delta wave?

Which ECG findings suggest orthodromic tachycardia in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of ECG in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When is continuous ECG recording indicated in the management of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of portable ECG recording devices in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of event recorders in the diagnosis and management of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of small loop recorders in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When is a transtelephonic transient cardiac event monitor used in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of stress testing in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the limitations of stress testing in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of esophageal electrophysiologic study (EPS) in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of intracardiac electrophysiologic study (EPS) in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the indications for electrophysiologic study (EPS) in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which findings on EPS suggest preexcitation in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the variations for ventricular depolarization in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which factors increase preexcitation in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the features of preexcitation during antidromic SVT in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the left lateral pathway in EPS of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the right ventricular free wall pathway in EPS of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How does a septal accessory pathway appear on EPS in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is retrograde atrial activation over the AP in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome confirmed on EPS?

What is the significance of entrainment pacing on EPS in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of activation mapping in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which findings on EPS increase the risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which finding on EPS is an indication for RF ablation in asymptomatic individuals with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the histologic findings characteristic of sudden cardiac death in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which triggers for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome should be treated in adults?

Why should treatment be individualized for each patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which noninvasive markers are used for risk stratification in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is ambulatory monitoring and treadmill testing used in the management of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the main treatment approaches to Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When is drug therapy indicated for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What needs to be considered drug selection to treat Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the initial treatment for cardiac arrest with hemodynamic compromise in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which vagal maneuvers are attempted in the initial treatment for cardiac arrest with hemodynamic compromise in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When is IV adenosine indicated in the treatment of cardiac arrest with hemodynamic compromise Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of procainamide and esmolol in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of antiarrhythmic drugs in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which drugs act on the atrioventricular (AV) node in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which drugs act on the accessory pathway (AP) in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the manifestations of narrow-complex atrioventricular (AV) reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is narrow-complex atrioventricular (AV) reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) treated in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter identified in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is atrial fibrillation (AF) treated in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is hemodynamic instability treated in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which energy level is effective for termination of most supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the adverse effects of cardioversion in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the incidence of embolic episodes in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome and how are they treated?

What is included in the inpatient evaluation and management of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When is the transfer to a tertiary facility for comprehensive evaluation and management indicated in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of radiofrequency (RF) ablation in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Why is EPS with RF ablation the treatment of choice for symptomatic and asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the recommendations for routine electrophysiologic studies (EPS) in asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is radiofrequency (RF) ablation used to treat Ebstein anomaly in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the alternative treatment to RF ablation for tachyarrhythmic symptoms in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the indications for RF ablation in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the benefits of prophylactic RF ablation in asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is orthodromic tachycardia treated in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is the AP identified and ablation site selected in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the success rate for RF ablation in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the safety of RF ablation in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of surgical open heart procedures in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome treated in patients who do not undergo RF ablation?

Which drugs are used to treat Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the best long-term treatment plan for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

How is Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome treated during pregnancy?

Which diet restrictions may be beneficial in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the activity restrictions in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When should competitive sports be avoided by patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When can patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome return to competitive sports?

How is Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome prevented?

What is the duration of antiarrhythmic therapy for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is included in follow-up visits for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is included in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome following electrophysiologic studies (EPS) and radiofrequency (RF)?

What follow-up care is needed for underlying structural heart disease in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Who should be screened for preexcitation following a sudden death from Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When is routine electrophysiologic study (EPS) contraindicated in the management of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is included in the follow-up of asymptomatic patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What myocardial damage is caused by RF ablation in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Guidelines

What are the PACES/HRS guidelines for electrophysiologic study (EPS) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the PACES/HRS guidelines for the evaluation and diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the PACES/HRS treatment guidelines for asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in patients aged 8-21 years old?

What are the AHA/ACC/HRS treatment guidelines for atrial fibrillation (AF) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the AHA/ACC/HRS treatment guidelines for supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the AHA/ACC/HRS guidelines for the acute management of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

When is synchronized cardioversion contraindicated in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which drugs are contraindicated in the treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the AHA/ACC/HRS treatment guidelines for orthodromic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the ESC treatment guidelines for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the PACES/HRS treatment guidelines for adult congenital heart disease (CHD) in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What are the PACES/HRS recommendations for preoperative EPS in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) and Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

In which patients with CHD do the PACES/HRS guidelines recommend against preoperative EPS for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Medications

What are the goals of emergency treatment of hemodynamic instability in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of beta-blockers in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

What is the role of digoxin and verapamil in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Antiarrhythmic Agents are used in the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome?