Heart Failure Questions & Answers

Updated: May 07, 2018
  • Author: Ioana Dumitru, MD; Chief Editor: Gyanendra K Sharma, MD, FACC, FASE  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is heart failure?

What are the signs and symptoms of heart failure?

What are the Framingham diagnostic criteria for heart failure?

What are the Framingham major diagnostic criteria for heart failure?

What are the Framingham minor diagnostic criteria for heart failure?

How does the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification system categorize heart failure?

What is the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) staging system?

Which tests may be performed in the initial evaluation for suspected heart failure?

What are the nonsurgical treatment options for heart failure?

What are the surgical treatment options for heart failure?

What is heart failure?

What causes heart failure?

What are the signs and symptoms of heart failure?

How is heart failure classified?

What are the stages of heart failure defined by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) staging system?

What is the role of lab studies in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is included in patient care for acute heart failure?

What are the goals of drug treatment for heart failure?

How is heart failure progression pathophysiologically perpetuated?

Which pathophysiological adaptations prevent heart failure?

What is the role of norepinephrine in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What is the pathophysiology of acute heart failure?

What is the role of chronic increased wall stress in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What can trigger hemodynamic and neurohormonal derangements in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What is the role of epinephrine in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What is the role of calcium overload in the pathophysiology of heart failure?

What is the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in the pathophysiology of heart failure?

What is the paradigm of myocyte biology and heart failure?

What is the role of angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What is the role of myocardial volume in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What are the features of myocardial remodeling in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What is the pathophysiology of advanced heart failure?

What is the pathophysiology of systolic and diastolic heart failure?

What is the role of neuro-hormone mediated events in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What is the role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the pathophysiology of heart failure?

Which vasoactive systems have a role in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What is the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What is systolic heart failure?

What is diastolic heart failure?

What is the pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)?

What causes increase in left ventricle (LV) chamber stiffness in the pathophysiology of heart failure?

How does the rise in filling pressure affect the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What is the role of ventricular pressure-volume curve in the pathophysiology of heart failure?

What is parallel upward displacement in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What is the role of increased diastolic pressure in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What is the role of arrhythmias in the pathogenesis of heart failure?

What causes heart failure?

What are the categories used to classify causes of heart failure?

Which underlying factors cause heart failure?

What are the underlying causes of systolic heart failure?

What are the underlying causes of diastolic heart failure?

What are the underlying causes of acute heart failure?

What are the underlying causes of high-output heart failure?

What are the underlying causes of right heart failure?

How does decompensation result in heart failure?

What is the most common cause of decompensation in heart failure?

How does systemic infection cause heart failure?

How does cardiac infection and inflammation cause heart failure?

What causes fever, tachypnea, and tachycardia due to heart failure?

What are common precipitants of cardiac decomposition causing heart failure?

How does salt retention cause heart failure?

What are the high-output states that can precipitate heart failure?

What does longitudinal data from the Framingham Heart Study reveal about the etiology of heart failure?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of heart failure?

Which patients at high-risk of heart failure should be screened and followed?

What is the prevalence of heart failure in the US?

What is the incidence of heart failure in the US?

What is the mortality rate for heart failure?

What are the AHA statistics for heart failure in the US?

What are the racial predilections of heart failure in the US?

What has caused an increase in incidence of heart failure in the US among recent immigrants from developing countries?

How does the presentation of heart failure in the US vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of heart failure vary by age in the US?

What are the common causes for the increased prevalence of heart failure in industrialized countries?

How does the mortality rate for heart failure vary between industrialized and developing countries?

What are the trends for heart failure in developing nations?

What is the mortality rate for heart failure?

What is the mortality rate for systolic heart failure?

What variables are used as prognostic factors in heart failure?

How does the prognosis of heart failure compare to that of coronary artery disease?

How does pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) affect the prognosis of heart failure?

Which factors worsen the prognosis of heart failure?

How can recurrence of heart failure be prevented?

What information about heart failure should patients receive?

Presentation

What should be the focus of clinical history during the evaluation of heart failure?

What are common cardiac signs and symptoms of heart failure?

What are non-cardiac symptoms of heart failure?

What is a common presentation of heart failure in the elderly?

How is exertional dyspnea characterized in patients with heart failure?

How is orthopnea characterized in patients with heart failure?

How is paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea characterized in patients with heart failure?

What causes dyspnea at rest in heart failure?

How is acute pulmonary edema characterized in heart failure?

What causes chest pain or chest pressure in heart failure?

What causes palpitations in heart failure?

How are fatigue and weakness characterized in heart failure?

What causes nocturia and oliguria in heart failure?

Which symptoms of heart failure in the elderly are caused by cerebrovascular atherosclerosis?

How do the presentations of mild and severe heart failure differ?

What are the clinical presentations of recently onset heart failure?

What are the clinical presentations of mild or moderate heart failure?

What causes ascites in patients with heart failure?

What are the signs and symptoms of increased adrenergic activity in patients with heart failure?

What is the significance of rales in patients with heart failure?

How is systemic venous hypertension manifested during heart failure?

What causes hepatojugular reflux in heart failure?

What is the significance of edema in heart failure?

What causes hepatomegaly in heart failure?

What causes hydrothorax in heart failure?

What is protodiastolic gallop in heart failure?

What is the significance of cardiomegaly in heart failure?

What is the significance of pulsus alternans in heart failure?

What are the common heart sounds in patients with heart failure?

What is the significance of cardiac cachexia in heart failure?

What are the clinical manifestations of predominant right-sided heart failure?

What are the clinical manifestations of heart failure in children?

What are the characteristics of right-sided venous congestion in heart failure?

What are the characteristics of left-sided venous congestion in heart failure?

What is required for the diagnosis of heart failure using the Framingham system?

What is the basis for the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification of heart failure?

How does the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) classify heart failure?

What are the prevention measures for ACC/AHA stage A heart failure?

What screening should patients with a family history of dilated cardiomyopathy receive?

What are the clinical characteristics of ACC/AHA stage B heart failure?

What are the clinical characteristics of ACC/AHA stage C heart failure?

What are the clinical characteristics of ACC/AHA stage D heart failure?

DDX

What are the cardiac and noncardiac causes of heart failure?

What is the most common form of heart failure in the US?

How is heart failure differentiated from pulmonary edema?

Which features may differentiate cardiogenic from noncardiogenic pulmonary edema in heart failure?

What are the clinical features of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema in heart failure?

How is right-sided heart failure presented?

How is heart failure diagnosed in elderly patients?

What are the differential diagnoses for Heart Failure?

Workup

What is included in a careful workup of suspected heart failure?

When is endomyocardial biopsy indicated in the workup of suspected heart failure?

Which lab studies are performed in the diagnosis of heart failure?

Should iron levels be measured in the workup of heart failure?

What is the role of serum electrolyte values in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the role of potassium levels in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the role of pulmonary function testing (PFT) in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the role of renal function tests in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the role of liver function tests in the diagnosis of heart failure?

How is acute hepatic venous congestion identified in heart failure?

What is the role of rapid measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What are the limitations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements for the diagnosis of heart failure?

When is measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) indicated for the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the specificity and sensitivity of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) testing for diagnosis of heart failure?

What are the cutoff values of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) for the diagnosis of heart failure?

In which patient groups do BNP and NT-proBNP levels vary from the norm for the diagnosis of heart failure?

When is the measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) contraindicated in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What are the levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) in patients with advanced heart failure?

What is the role of genetic testing in the diagnosis of heart failure?

Where can one go for specific genetic testing information related to the diagnosis of heart failure?

Which types of cardiomyopathy have the highest yield of genetic testing for heart failure?

How is genetic testing used to diagnose dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure?

How is genetic testing used to diagnose hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and heart failure?

How is autosomal dominant arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy diagnosed in heart failure?

When should genetic testing be considered for the diagnosis of heart failure?

When is the measurement of arterial blood gas (ABG) indicated for the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the significance of a finding of hypoxemia in the evaluation of heart failure?

What is assessed with arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement in the evaluation of heart failure?

What is the role of mixed venous oxygen saturation in the diagnosis of heart failure?

How is pulse oximetry used for the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the significance of oxygen saturation in the diagnosis of heart failure?

When is a screening electrocardiogram (ECG) indicated in the evaluation of heart failure?

What are the possible presentations of heart failure on electrocardiography?

What is the role of chest radiographs in the diagnosis of heart failure?

How is transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) used for the diagnosis of heart failure?

How is stress echocardiography used for the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the role of two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the role of Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the appearance of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) on echocardiogram for the diagnosis of heart failure?

How are CT scanning and MRI used in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What are the benefits of MRI in the diagnosis of heart failure?

How is radionuclide multiple-gated acquisition (MUGA) scan used for the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the role of ECG-gated SPECT imaging in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the benefit of combining interpretations of perfusion and function on electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated SPECT images for the diagnosis of heart failure?

Why is ECG-gated SPECT considered state of the art for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging in heart failure?

Which issues need to be addressed in the evaluation of presumed ischemic dysfunction in heart failure?

How is equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA) used for the diagnosis of heart failure?

How is the analysis from radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA) obtained for the diagnosis of heart failure?

How is radionuclide ventriculography used for the diagnosis of heart failure?

How is the scintigraphic imaging agent iobenguane I 123 injection (AdreView) used in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What is the role of coronary angiography in the diagnosis of heart failure?

When is angiography indicated in the evaluation of heart failure?

What is the role of right heart catheterization in the diagnosis of heart failure?

What are normal right-sided hemodynamics in the evaluation of heart failure?

How is pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) measured for the diagnosis of heart failure?

When are left-sided heart catheterization and coronary angiography indicated for the diagnosis of heart failure?

How is cardiopulmonary stress testing used in the evaluation of heart failure?

Treatment

What is the prognostic relationship between sleep apnea and heart failure?

What is the relationship between anemia and heart failure?

What is included in the medical care of heart failure?

Which invasive therapies are used in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of heart transplantation in the treatment of heart failure?

Why is it important to evaluate patients with heart failure for coronary artery disease?

What is the benefit of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with heart failure?

When is surgical revascularization recommended for the treatment of heart failure?

When is coronary angiography useful in the management of heart failure?

When are repeated evaluations for ischemia indicated in the management of heart failure?

What is the relationship between valvular heart disease and heart failure?

What are the treatment approaches to sleep apnea in patients with heart failure?

What risks are increased in patients with comorbid sleep apnea and heart failure?

What are the treatment approaches for anemia in patients with heart failure?

What is the relationship between cardiorenal syndrome and heart failure?

What are the classifications of cardiorenal syndrome in patients with heart failure?

What is the pathophysiology of CR1 and CR2 of cardiorenal syndrome in heart failure?

What are the indications for renal replacement therapy in heart failure?

What is the significance of an increase in creatine levels in heart failure?

How is dopamine used in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of nesiritide in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of tolvaptan in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of adenosine receptor antagonists in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of beta-blockers in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the relationship between atrial fibrillation and heart failure?

What is the role of catheter ablation in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the nonpharmacologic therapy options for heart failure?

What are the benefits of aerobic exercise in the treatment of heart failure?

Which measures improve treatment adherence in heart failure?

What are the dietary restrictions for patients with heart failure?

What is the significance of plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations in the prognosis of heart failure?

What is the benefit of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the treatment of heart failure?

Which pharmacologic therapies are used in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of ivabradine (Corlanor) in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of combination therapies for the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of anticoagulation therapy in the treatment of heart failure?

When is infusion of positive inotropic drugs indicated in the treatment of heart failure?

Which drugs should be avoided during the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of digoxin in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the clinical characteristics of acute heart failure?

How is acute heart failure managed?

What are the treatment options to increase ventilation in patients with acute heart failure?

What are the goals of medical therapy for acute heart failure?

How is preload reduction achieved in the treatment of acute heart failure?

Which 3 drugs are used in combination to manage acute heart failure following preload reduction?

How is hypoperfusion treated in acute heart failure?

What is the role of calcium channel blockers in the treatment of acute heart failure?

What is the role of diuretics in the treatment of acute heart failure?

How are diuretics administered for the treatment of heart failure?

How is diuretic resistance diagnosed in acute heart failure?

How is diuretic resistance managed in the treatment of acute heart failure?

When is the transition to oral diuretic therapy made in the treatment of acute heart failure?

What is the role of vasodilators in the treatment of acute heart failure?

What is the role of nitrates in the treatment of acute heart failure?

What is the role of sodium nitroprusside in the treatment of acute heart failure?

What is the role of nesiritide in the treatment of acute heart failure?

What is the role of ultrafiltration in the treatment of acute heart failure?

When is inpatient treatment required for acute heart failure?

When should hospitalization be considered for the treatment of acute heart failure?

What is included in inpatient treatment of acute heart failure?

What is the role of invasive hemodynamic monitoring in the treatment of acute heart failure?

When is invasive hemodynamic monitoring used to guide therapy for acute heart failure?

What is the role of monitoring in the management of acute heart failure?

Which implantable wireless hemodynamic monitoring system are FDA approved for acute heart failure?

What are the discharge criteria following treatment of acute heart failure?

What are the predischarge requirements for patients with acute heart failure?

What further care is required following treatment for acute heart failure?

What are the goals of treatment for heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF)?

What are the ACC/AHA/HFSA treatment guidelines for stage C of left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) heart failure?

What are lifestyle modifications for the treatment of left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) heart failure?

What is the role of diuretic therapy in the treatment of left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) heart failure?

What is the role of ACEIs and ARBs in the treatment of left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) heart failure?

When are beta-blockers indicated for the treatment of left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) heart failure?

When are aldosterone receptor and calcium channel blockers indicated for the treatment of left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) heart failure?

When should restoration of sinus rhythm be considered for the treatment of left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) heart failure?

What is the treatment approach for right ventricular (RV) heart failure?

What are the general measures for the management of right ventricular (RV) heart failure?

What are the precipitating factors for right ventricular (RV) heart failure?

What is the role of ACEI/ARB therapy in the treatment of right ventricular (RV) heart failure?

What is the role of inotropic therapy in the treatment of right ventricular (RV) heart failure?

When are anticoagulants indicated for the treatment of right ventricular (RV) heart failure?

When is atrial septostomy considered for the treatment of right ventricular (RV) heart failure?

What is the prognosis of right ventricular (RV) heart failure?

What are the electrophysiological interventions used to treat heart failure?

What is the role of biventricular pacemakers in the treatment of heart failure?

When are dual chamber pacemakers contraindicated in the management of heart failure?

What is the role of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the benefits of using implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for the primary prevention of heart failure?

How is cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) used in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the benefits of combined CRT-ICD for the treatment of heart failure?

When is cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) contraindicated in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the CRT techniques used in the treatment of heart failure?

What improvements have been seen following cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) for the treatment of heart failure?

What is the efficacy of combined CRT-ICD treatment for heart failure?

What is the difference in outcomes between men and women treated with combined CRT-ICD for heart failure?

Which medications were evaluated in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT) for the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of carvedilol in the treatment of heart failure?

How does CRT affect mortality in patients with heart failure?

What decrease in mortality was seen from biventricular pacing in the treatment of heart failure?

What is a common cause of mortality in patients with heart failure?

What is the efficacy of biventricular pacing for the treatment of heart failure?

What factors are used to determine choice of revascularization procedure in the treatment of heart failure?

How is the need for angiography determined in patients with heart failure at low risk for coronary artery disease (CAD)?

What are the prognostic comparisons between medical and surgical therapy for coronary artery disease (CAD) in heart failure?

What is the efficacy of surgical revascularization for the treatment of heart failure?

What are the benefits of surgical revascularization in ischemic heart failure?

What is the role of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure?

What is the prognosis of coronary artery diseases (CAD) and heart failure following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)?

What is the efficacy of combined medical therapy and CABG for the treatment of heart failure?

In which patient groups is medical therapy alone effective for the treatment of heart failure?

How do mortality rates compare between combined CABG with medical therapy and medical therapy alone for the treatment of heart failure?

Which surgical techniques and preventive strategies are used in the treatment of high-risk patients with heart failure?

What is the relationship between valvular heart disease and heart failure?

What is the relationship between diseases of the aortic valve and heart failure?

When is aortic valve replacement indicated in the treatment of heart failure?

What precautions should be taken when treating heart failure in patients with aortic valve disease?

In which patient group is valvular surgery recommended for the treatment of heart failure?

Which common symptom of aortic stenosis is a strong indicator of mortality from heart failure?

What is the age-corrected survival rate for heart failure following aortic valve replacement (AVR)?

How does the etiology of ventricular dysfunction affect the efficacy of aortic valve replacement (AVR) for treatment of heart failure?

Why is precise measurement of the aortic valve difficult in patients with heart failure?

What is the role of dobutamine testing in the preoperative evaluation of patients with heart failure?

How does surgical timing affect the survival in heart failure?

What the relationship between mitral valve regurgitation and heart failure?

What are the goals of mitral valve surgery in patients with heart failure?

What are the benefits of mitral valve repair for the treatment of heart failure?

What are the limitations of mitral valve repair in patients with heart failure?

What is the role of mitral regurgitation etiology in treatment selection for heart failure?

In which patients should mitral valve surgery be considered for the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in the treatment of heart failure with mitral valve regurgitation?

What is the role of annuloplasty in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the limitations of annuloplasty in the treatment of heart failure?

How is mitral valve replacement performed in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of percutaneous mitral valve repair in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the efficacy of percutaneous mitral valve repair in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the ventricular response to heart failure?

What is the goal of ventricular restoration following heart failure?

What is the role of the Batista procedure in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the focus of ventricular restoration following heart failure?

What are the benefits from ventricular restoration in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the efficacy of ventricular restoration in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the indications for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of ventricular assist devices in the treatment of heart failure?

How are ventricular assistive devices used in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the options for bridging patient with heart failure to recovery and transplantation?

Which left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are FDA approved for heart failure destination therapy?

What are the potential complications of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) for the treatment of heart failure?

What is efficacy of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) in the treatment of heart failure?

What modifications have reduced the mortality rates of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) for the treatment of heart failure?

Which types of ventricular assist devices (VADs) can be used by outpatients with heart failure?

What is the postmarket approval efficacy of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) for the treatment of heart failure?

What are the advantages of continuous-flow left ventricular (LV) assist devices (LVADs) in the bridge treatment of heart failure?

How is class IV stage D heart failure treated?

What are the possible complications of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) in severe heart failure?

What is the role of heart transplantation in the treatment of heart failure?

In which patient groups is heart transplantation the criterion standard for therapy for heart failure?

What are the benefits of heart transplantation for heart failure?

Which factors are critical for a good outcome following heart transplantation for heart failure?

What are the absolute indications for heart transplantation for treatment of heart failure?

What are the relative indications for heart transplantation for treatment of heart failure?

Which indications in isolation are not sufficient for heart transplantation to treat heart failure?

When is heart transplantation contraindicated for the treatment of heart failure?

Which treatments are not recommended by the HFSA for the treatment of heart failure?

How does coronary graft atherosclerosis affect the outcome of heart transplantation for heart failure?

How often is heart transplantation performed in the US?

What is the role of the total artificial heart (TAH) in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the advantages of the total artificial heart (TAH) in the treatment of heart failure?

Which artificial hearts (TAHs) are commercially available for the treatment of heart failure?

What is the SynCardia TAH for the treatment of heart failure?

What is the AbioCor TAH for the treatment of heart failure?

What are the limitations of the AbioCor TAH for the treatment of heart failure?

What surgery is required prior to implementation of TAHs for the treatment of heart failure?

How is the CARMAT TAH used in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the clinical applications of artificial-heart technology in the treatment of heart failure?

Guidelines

Who is the contributor for heart failure guidelines?

What is the Framingham classification of heart failure?

What are the major diagnostic criteria for heart failure?

What are the minor diagnostic criteria for heart failure?

What are the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classifications of heart failure?

What is the ACCF/AHA staging system for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for targeted LQTS genetic testing in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for LQTS mutation specific genetic testing in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for targeted CPVT genetic testing in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for targeted BrS genetic testing in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for genetic testing for cardiac conduction disease (CCD) in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for targeted SQTS genetic testing in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for targeted HCM genetic testing in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for targeted ACM/ARVC genetic testing in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for targeted DCM genetic testing in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for genetic testing for left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for genetic testing for restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for genetic testing for familial DCM in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are the HRS-EHRA guidelines for genetic testing for idiopathic DCM in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

What are HFSA recommendations for genetic evaluation of cardiomyopathy in individuals at high risk for heart failure?

Which organizations have issued guidelines for the diagnosis and management of heart failure?

Which basic lab tests are recommended for the initial evaluation of suspected heart failure?

What are the guidelines for measurement of BNP and NT-proBNP levels in the evaluation of suspected heart failure?

What are the guidelines for use of imaging studies in evaluation of suspected heart failure?

According to guidelines, which studies may be indicated in selected patients with heart failure?

What are the guidelines for use of cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography in the evaluation of suspected heart failure?

According to the ACCF/AHA guidelines, when is routine endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) indicated to diagnose heart failure?

When does the ESC recommend considering endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in the diagnosis of heart failure?

When does the ACCF/AHA recommend a 6-minute walk test in the diagnosis of heart failure?

In which situations does HFSA guidelines suggest routine maximal exercise stress testing in the diagnosis of heart failure?

Which values of peak oxygen consumption reflect poor cardiac performance in the evaluation of heart failure?

What are the guidelines for nonpharmacologic therapy of heart failure?

What are the treatment guidelines for chronic heart failure?

What is the purpose of patient education in the management of heart failure?

What are the dietary treatment guidelines for heart failure?

Which agents should be avoided by patients with heart failure?

When are angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) recommended in patients with chronic heart failure?

Which organizations have aligned their guidelines for pharmacologic therapy of heart failure?

What are the class I recommendations for pharmacologic therapy of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)?

When are ACE inhibitors recommended in patients with chronic heart failure?

When are angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs) recommended in patients with chronic heart failure?

When is ivabradine recommended in the treatment of chronic heart failure?

When should angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs) contraindicated in the treatment of chronic heart failure?

What is the role of device therapy for heart failure?

What are the HFSA recommendations for the use of pacemakers in patients with heart failure?

What are the ACC/AHA guidelines for consideration of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) to treat heart failure?

What are the ACCF/AHA and ESC guidelines for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement in patients with heart failure?

What are the ACCF/AHA guidelines for patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in heart failure?

What are European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines class I recommendations for the use of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with heart failure?

For which groups should cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) be considered for the treatment of heart failure?

For which groups should cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) be considered for the treatment of heart failure?

When is cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) contraindicated in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the guidelines for use of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) revascularization procedures in patients with heart failure?

For which patients with heart failure is revascularization recommended?

In which patients with heart failure is the benefit-risk balance of revascularization uncertain?

When is aortic valve replacement (AVR) recommended by the ACCF/AHA for the treatment of heart failure?

What is the HFSA guideline for mitral valve repair or replacement in patients with heart failure?

What are the ESC recommendations for valvular surgery in heart failure?

Which organizations have release guidelines for the use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in patients with heart failure?

Which mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices are available for the treatment of heart failure?

What are the SCAI/ACC/HFSA/STS recommendation for the use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices in heart failure?

What is the recommendation for routine use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices for heart failure?

What are the ISHLT guidelines for mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices in the treatment of patients in acute cardiogenic shock?

What are the ISHLT guidelines for heart failure therapy via mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices?

What are the AHA guidelines for mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the ACCF/AHA and HFSA guidelines for consideration of heart transplantation in the treatment of heart failure?

What are the ESC guidelines for consideration of heart transplantation in the treatment of heart failure?

What do the ESC guidelines consider contraindications for heart transplantation in patients with heart failure?

What are the HFSA recommended treatment goals for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF)?

What are the HFSA guidelines indications for hospital admission in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF)?

What are the ACCF/AHA guidelines for adjustment of maintenance medications in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF)?

What is the aim of diuretic therapy for heart failure?

What are the recommended doses of diuretics for the treatment of heart failure?

When is beta-blocker therapy initiated in hospitalized patients with heart failure?

What are the recommendations for adjuvant treatment in heart failure?

What are the HFSA guidelines for invasive hemodynamic monitoring in patients with heart failure?

What are the HFSA recommendations for routine administration of supplemental oxygen in the treatment of heart failure?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of ivabradine (Corlanor) in the treatment of heart failure?

What is the role of combination sacubitril/valsartan (Entresto) therapy for the treatment of heart failure?

Which drugs should be avoided by patients with heart failure?

Which medications in the drug class Opioid Analgesics are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Anticoagulants, Cardiovascular are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium Channel Blockers are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Aldosterone Antagonists, Selective are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Potassium-Sparing are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Other are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Thiazide are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretics, Loop are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class ARNIs are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class I(f) Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class B-type Natriuretic Peptides are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Nitrates are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Vasodilators are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Inotropic Agents are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class ARBs are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class ACE Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Beta-Blockers, Beta-1 Selective are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?

Which medications in the drug class Beta-Blockers, Alpha Activity are used in the treatment of Heart Failure?