Organophosphate Toxicity Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 22, 2018
  • Author: Kenneth D Katz, MD, FAAEM, ABMT; Chief Editor: Sage W Wiener, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

Which organophosphate (OP) compounds cause organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

How does organophosphate (OP) toxicity occur?

What are the signs and symptoms of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

How is organophosphate (OP) toxicity diagnosed?

What is the initial treatment for organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What are the uses for organophosphate (OP) compounds?

How were the mechanisms of acute and chronic toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) discovered?

How is organophosphate (OP) toxicity used in chemical warfare?

What is the effect of chronic organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the primary mechanism of action in the pathophysiology of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the pathophysiology of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What are the routes of exposure in organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the incidence of organophosphate (OP) toxicity in the US?

What is the global incidence of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the mortality rate for organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What are the complications of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

How does the effect of organophosphate (OP) toxicity vary between children and adults?

Presentation

How are the symptoms of organophosphate (OP) toxicity categorized?

What are the muscarinic symptoms of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What are the nicotinic symptoms of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What are the central nervous system (CNS) symptoms of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What are the clinical presentations of organophosphate (OP) toxicity in children and adults?

Which vital sign findings are characteristic of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is type I paralysis due to organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is type II paralysis due to organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is type III paralysis due to organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What neuropsychiatric findings are characteristic of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

Which extrapyramidal findings are characteristic of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

Which organ systems may be affected by organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

DDX

Which conditions with depressed levels of red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase should be considered in the differential diagnosis of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

Which conditions with depressed levels of plasma (pseudo) cholinesterase should be considered in the differential diagnosis of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

Which conditions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What are the differential diagnoses for Organophosphate Toxicity?

Workup

How is organophosphate (OP) toxicity diagnosed?

What is the role of Test-mate ChE field test in the diagnosis of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the role of blood tests in the evaluation of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the role of RBC AChE testing in the evaluation of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the role of plasma cholinesterase (ChE) testing in the evaluation of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What are the benefits of RBC AChE testing for the diagnosis of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the role of cholinesterase (ChE) level monitoring in the evaluation of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

Which lab findings are characteristic of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the correlation between severity of organophosphate (OP) toxicity and mortality?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the role of electrocardiography in the evaluation of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

Treatment

What is the process for decontamination from organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the initial treatment of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

How are cardiovascular symptoms of organophosphate (OP) toxicity treated?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

Medications

What are the mainstays of medical therapy in organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the role of atropine in the treatment of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the role of pralidoxime (2-PAM) in the treatment of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the role of intraosseous administration of medications in the treatment of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What is the benefit of powdered atropine in the treatment of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What are alternative treatments for organophosphate (OP) toxicity when atropine is unavailable or in limited supply?

Which combination therapy is used to treat organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

Which agents are being investigated for the treatment of organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of Organophosphate Toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Antidotes, OP poisoning are used in the treatment of Organophosphate Toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Anticholinergic agents are used in the treatment of Organophosphate Toxicity?

Follow-up

When is inpatient care indicated for organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

How is organophosphate (OP) toxicity prevented?

Where can patient education be found for organophosphate (OP) toxicity?

What are the poor prognostic indicators for organophosphate (OP) toxicity?