Organophosphate Toxicity Treatment & Management

Updated: Sep 05, 2017
  • Author: Kenneth D Katz, MD, FAAEM, ABMT; Chief Editor: Sage W Wiener, MD  more...
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Treatment

Decontamination

Remove all clothing from and gently cleanse patients suspected of organophosphate exposure with soap and water because organophosphates are hydrolyzed readily in aqueous solutions with a high pH. Consider clothing as hazardous waste and discard accordingly.

Health care providers must avoid contaminating themselves while handling patients. Use personal protective equipment, such as neoprene gloves and gowns, when decontaminating patients because hydrocarbons can penetrate nonpolar substances such as latex and vinyl. Use charcoal cartridge masks for respiratory protection when decontaminating patients who are significantly contaminated.

Irrigate the eyes of patients who have had ocular exposure using isotonic sodium chloride solution or lactated Ringer's solution. Morgan lenses can be used for eye irrigation.

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Medical Care

Airway control and adequate oxygenation are paramount in organophosphate (OP) poisonings. Intubation may be necessary in cases of respiratory distress due to laryngospasm, bronchospasm, bronchorrhea, or seizures. Immediate aggressive use of atropine may eliminate the need for intubation. Succinylcholine should be avoided because it is degraded by plasma cholinesterase and may result in prolonged paralysis. In addition to atropine, pralidoxime (2-PAM) and benzodiazepines (eg, diazepam) are mainstays of medical therapy (see Medication).

Central venous access and arterial lines may be needed to treat the patient with organophosphate toxicity who requires multiple medications and blood-gas measurements.

Continuous cardiac monitoring and pulse oximetry should be established; an electrocardiogram (ECG) should be performed. Torsades de pointes should be treated in the standard manner. The use of intravenous magnesium sulfate has been reported as beneficial for organophosphate toxicity. The mechanism of action may involve acetylcholine antagonism or ventricular membrane stabilization.

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Surgical Care

Patients with trauma or blast injury should be treated according to standard advanced trauma life support (ATLS) protocol. Patient decontamination should always be considered to prevent medical personnel poisoning.

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