Snakebite Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 27, 2018
  • Author: Brian J Daley, MD, MBA, FACS, FCCP, CNSC; Chief Editor: Joe Alcock, MD, MS  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What percentage of snake species are venomous?

What types of snakes are included in the subfamily Crotalidae?

What types of snakes are characterized as pit vipers?

What are characteristic of snakes in the Crotalidae subfamily?

What snakes are included in the Elapidae family?

What are characteristic of eastern and western snake species in the US?

What are characteristics of the coral snake?

Which members of the Elapidae family are not indigenous to the US but may be found in zoos and private collections?

What is the pathophysiology of Crotalid snake strikes?

How do coral snakebites differ from pit viper strikes?

What is the pathophysiology of venom composition?

How do enzyme compositions of venom differ among snake species?

What are the effects of venom following a snakebite?

What are risk factors for snakebite?

What is the prevalence of snakebites in the US?

What is the global prevalence of snakebites?

Which group is at highest risk of snakebites?

How does the incidence of snakebites vary by sex?

How does the incidence of snakebites vary by age?

What is the mortality risk from snakebite?

What are the mortality statistics for snakebites in the US?

What is the morbidity associated with snakebite?

Where is more information on snake species and snakebites found?

Presentation

What is the focus of history in the evaluation of a snakebite?

What are the physical findings of snakebite?

What are the physical effects of a copperhead snakebite?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Snakebite?

Workup

Which lab studies are performed in the evaluation of snakebite?

Which imaging studies are performed in the evaluation of snakebite?

How is compartmental pressure measured in the evaluation of snakebite?

Treatment

How is the snakebite severity scale used in the treatment of snakebites?

When is CroFab indicated in the treatment of snakebites?

What are general management principles for initial treatment of snakebites?

When is hospitalization indicated in the treatment of snakebite?

What monitoring should be performed during the treatment for snakebites?

How is prehospital care administered for a snakebite?

In what setting is a physician most likely to have experience treating snakebites?

What is included in definitive treatment of the snakebite include?

What is characteristic of the evenomation severities of the pit viper bite?

How are envenomations of the snakebite graded?

When is antivenin indicated in the treatment of a pit viper bite?

What is the efficacy of antigen-binding fragment antivenom (CroFab) for the treatment of snakebites?

What are limitations of antigen-binding fragment antivenom (CroFab) for the treatment of snakebites?

What is the treatment for bites of a coral snake?

When is surgery indicated for treatment of snakebites?

Which consultations are needed for the diagnosis and management of snakebites?

What is a frequent complication of snakebites?

What are some systemic complications of snakebites?

What are antivenin-associated complications of snakebite?

How are snakebites prevented?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for snakebites?

Which medications in the drug class Immunizations are used in the treatment of Snakebite?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Snakebite?

Which medications in the drug class Antivenins are used in the treatment of Snakebite?