Alcoholic Hepatitis Clinical Presentation

Updated: Dec 10, 2017
  • Author: Douglas M Heuman, MD, FACP, FACG, AGAF; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
  • Print
Presentation

History and Physical Examination

Heavy alcohol use is a prerequisite for the development of alcoholic hepatitis. The history is usually apparent; however, in some patients, alcohol use may be covert.

Clues to the presence of alcoholism include a history of multiple motor vehicle accidents, convictions for driving while intoxicated, and poor interpersonal relationships. Alcoholism exhibits a genetic predisposition, and a history of alcoholism in a close relative may also indicate that a patient is at risk.

Presentation

Patients with clinically symptomatic alcoholic hepatitis typically present with nonspecific symptoms of nausea, malaise, and low-grade fever. The clinical presentation may be precipitated by complications of impaired liver function or portal hypertension, such as upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from esophageal varices, confusion and lethargy from hepatic encephalopathy, or increased abdominal girth from ascites.

A person who uses alcohol heavily may come to medical attention because of an intercurrent medical illness that produces altered mental status or persistent vomiting, which, in turn, triggers alcohol withdrawal symptoms. In such instances, the clinician must be alert to the presence of a precipitating illness (eg, subdural hematoma, acute pancreatitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage) and to the likelihood of alcohol withdrawal symptoms (eg, seizures, delirium tremens) in addition to the problems associated with alcoholic hepatitis.

2010 AASLD screening and diagnostic recommendations for ALD

The 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) alcoholic liver disease (ALD) practice guideline includes the following recommendations for screening and diagnosis [3] :

  • After discussion of alcohol use with the patient, if abuse or excess use is suspected, screen the patient for alcohol abuse using a structured questionnaire such as the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)
  • If the patient's history or a screening test is positive for alcohol abuse, use laboratory testing to verify the diagnosis of ALD and rule out other considerations
  • If ALD is present, examine the patient for evidence of other alcohol-related organ damage

Physical examination

Patients with alcoholic hepatitis are commonly febrile with tachycardia. Mild tachypnea with primary respiratory alkalosis may be observed. The liver is usually enlarged, often with mild hepatic tenderness. Hepatomegaly results from both steatosis and swelling of the injured hepatocytes.

Manifestations of hepatic failure or portal hypertension may include scleral icterus with darkening of the urine, splenomegaly, asterixis (a flapping tremor characteristic of metabolic encephalopathies), peripheral edema, and bulging flanks with shifting abdominal dullness (indicating the presence of ascites).

Spider angiomata, proximal muscle wasting, altered hair distribution, and gynecomastia may be observed, although these findings most commonly reflect coexistent cirrhosis.