Cholecystitis Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 12, 2019
  • Author: Alan A Bloom, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is cholecystitis?

What are the signs and symptoms of cholecystitis?

What is the presentation of cholecystitis in old and young patients?

What are the physical findings of cholecystitis?

Which lab tests may be useful in the diagnosis of cholecystitis?

Which imaging studies may be performed in the diagnosis of cholecystitis?

What are ACR recommendations for diagnostic imaging of cholecystitis?

How is acute cholecystitis treated?

How is uncomplicated cholecystitis treated?

What are the surgical and interventional procedures used to treat cholecystitis?

What is the definition of cholecystitis?

What are the risk factors for cholecystitis?

What is the etiology of acalculous cholecystitis?

What is the prognosis of cholecystitis?

What are the presentation and physical findings of acute cholecystitis?

Which factor increases the morbidity and mortality of acute cholecystitis?

What are the treatment options for cholecystitis?

What patient education should be provided to individuals with cholecystitis?

How frequently are gallstones present in patients with cholecystitis?

What is the pathogenesis of acute cholecystitis?

What is the role of endotoxin in the pathogenesis of cholecystitis?

What are the risk factors for calculous cholecystitis?

Which conditions are associated with acalculous cholecystitis?

What is the etiology of acalculous cholecystitis?

Which patients are at an increased risk of developing cholecystitis?

What is the prevalence of cholecystitis in the US?

Does the incidence of cholecystitis vary among age groups?

Does cholecystitis have a gender predilection?

Does cholecystitis have a racial predilection?

What is the prognosis of uncomplicated cholecystitis?

Which factors increase the morbidity and mortality risk of cholecystitis?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of acute cholecystitis?

How is cholecystitis differentiated from biliary colic?

What is the presentation of acalculous cholecystitis?

What is the presentation of cholecystitis in elderly patients?

What is the presentation of cholecystitis in children?

What is the presentation of empyema in patients with cholecystitis?

What is gallstone ileus?

What is emphysematous cholecystitis?

What are the physical findings of cholecystitis?

What are the physical findings of cholecystitis in elderly patients and in patients with diabetes?

DDX

Does a delay in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis affect patient outcome?

What should be included in the differential diagnosis of suspected cholecystitis in pregnant patients?

What are the differential diagnoses for Cholecystitis?

Workup

What is included in the workup for cholecystitis?

Which lab tests may be useful in the diagnosis of cholecystitis?

Are there clinical and lab parameters that predict the outcome of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) in acute cholecystitis?

What are the ACR Appropriateness Criteria imaging recommendations for the diagnosis of cholecystitis?

What is the role of noncontrast radiography in the diagnosis of cholecystitis?

Which radiographic findings suggest emphysematous cholecystitis?

What does a radiographic finding of diffusely calcified gallbladder indicate in a patient with suspected cholecystitis?

What is the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of cholecystitis?

Which ultrasonography findings suggest acute cholecystitis?

When should ultrasonography for cholecystitis be performed for best results?

What is the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the diagnosis of cholecystitis?

What are the disadvantages of ultrasonography for cholecystitis?

What are the sensitivity and specificity of CT scanning and MRI in predicting acute cholecystitis?

Which CT scanning and MRI findings suggest cholecystitis?

What is the role of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI in the diagnosis of cholecystitis?

What is the sensitivity and specificity of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis?

What is the role of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) in the diagnosis of cholecystitis?

What is the role of ERCP in the diagnosis of cholecystitis?

What are the histologic findings of cholecystitis?

Treatment

What should be considered in treatment selection for cholecystitis?

When is a liquid diet indicated for hospitalized patients with cholecystitis?

What are the initial treatments and antibiotic regimens for acute cholecystitis?

What are the criteria for outpatient treatment of cholecystitis?

Which medications are used for outpatient treatment of cholecystitis?

What are the contraindications to laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

What is the role of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of cholecystitis?

What are the SAGES guidelines for laparoscopic biliary tract surgery for cholecystitis?

What are the benefits of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) compared to delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DLC) for the treatment of cholecystitis?

What are the benefits of CT scanning compared to ultrasonography for detecting acute gangrenous cholecystitis?

Is single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy a safe and effective treatment for acute cholecystitis?

What is the conversion rate for laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy for cholecystitis?

When is laparoscopic cholecystectomy indicated in the treatment of cholecystitis during pregnancy?

What are the alternative treatment options for patients with cholecystitis at high surgical risk?

What is the role of ERCP in the treatment of cholecystitis?

What is the role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural cholecystostomy in the treatment of cholecystitis?

When is endoscopic ultrasonographic (EUS)-guided biliary drainage indicated for the treatment of cholecystitis?

What is the efficacy of endoscopic gallbladder drainage for the treatment of cholecystitis?

What is the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasonographic (EUS)-guided transmural stenting for the treatment of cholecystitis?

Medications

What are the goals of pharmacotherapy for cholecystitis?

Which medications in the drug class Antiemetics are used in the treatment of Cholecystitis?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics are used in the treatment of Cholecystitis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Cholecystitis?