Esophageal Spasm Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Aug 07, 2019
  • Author: Ahmad Malas, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Studies using catheter-based high-frequency ultrasound imaging have shown an increase in the baseline muscle thickness in patients with diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and achalasia, as well as in patients with esophageal symptoms and normal static manometry.

Esophageal spasm can modify cardiac function and vice versa. Esophageal spasm and coronary artery disease may coexist. Mechanisms that cause esophageal spasm can feed back to cause coronary spasm, and coronary spasm may feed forward to cause further esophageal spasm.

Differential Diagnoses