Esophageal Spasm Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 07, 2019
  • Author: Ahmad Malas, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What is esophageal spasm?

What are the symptoms of esophageal spasm?

How is esophageal spasm diagnosed and managed?

What is the pathogenesis of esophageal spasm?

What causes dysphagia in esophageal spasm?

When was esophageal spasm first identified?

What anatomy is relevant in esophageal spasm?

What are the esophageal zones in esophageal spasm?

What is the role of the upper esophageal sphincter in the pathophysiology of esophageal spasm?

What is the role of the esophageal middle zone in the pathophysiology of esophageal spasm?

What is the role of the lower esophageal sphincter in the pathophysiology of esophageal spasm?

What is the pathophysiology of diffuse esophageal spasm?

What is the pathophysiology of nutcracker and jackhammer esophagus?

What is the incidence of esophageal spasm in the US?

What is the global incidence of esophageal spasm?

Which patient groups are at highest risk for esophageal spasm?

What is the prognosis of esophageal spasm?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with esophageal spasm?

What are potential complications of esophageal spasm?

What is involved in patient education for esophageal spasm?

Presentation

What are the physical findings characteristic of esophageal spasm?

What are the signs and symptoms of esophageal spasm?

Which clinical history suggests esophageal spasm?

DDX

How are esophageal spasm and coronary spasm related?

What are the differential diagnoses for Esophageal Spasm?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of esophageal spasm?

What is the role of barium swallow in the workup of esophageal spasm?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of esophageal spasm?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of esophageal spasm?

What is the role of manometry in the workup of esophageal spasm?

What is the efficacy of manometry in the diagnosis of esophageal spasm?

How is a diffuse esophageal spasm distinguished on manometry?

How is the distal contractile integral (DCI) calculated in manometry for esophageal spasm?

How is a nutcracker esophageal spasm distinguished on manometry?

How is a jackhammer esophageal spasm distinguished on manometry?

Which manometric findings indicate esophageal spasm?

What may be combined with esophageal manometry in the workup of esophageal spasm?

What is the role of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and endoscopy in the evaluation of esophageal spasm?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for esophageal spasm?

What are the medical care options for esophageal spasm?

Which dietary restrictions are used in the treatment of esophageal spasm?

What is involved in outpatient monitoring of patients with esophageal spasm?

What is the role of surgery for esophageal spasm?

When is myotomy indicated for the surgical treatment of esophageal spasm?

When is esophagectomy indicated in the surgical treatment of esophageal spasm?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of esophageal spasm?

Which medications in the drug class Toxins (botulinum toxin) are used in the treatment of Esophageal Spasm?

Which medications in the drug class Tricyclic antidepressants are used in the treatment of Esophageal Spasm?

Which medications in the drug class Nitrates are used in the treatment of Esophageal Spasm?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium channel blockers are used in the treatment of Esophageal Spasm?

Which medications in the drug class Phosphodiesterase-5 Enzyme Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Esophageal Spasm?