Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 17, 2017
  • Author: Marco G Patti, MD; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What causes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are associated with delayed gastric emptying?

Which studies are used to evaluate suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which imaging studies are used in the workup of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which lifestyle modifications are used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which medications are used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which surgical treatments are used for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the indications for fundoplication in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the US?

What are the natural defense mechanisms against gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the signs and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which diagnostic studies are used in the workup of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) treated?

What is the relationship between pregnancy and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What patient education information is available on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the relevant anatomy in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the anatomy of the esophagus in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is the anatomy of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) characterized in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of the esophagus in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is blood supplied to the esophagus in the anatomy of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is blood supplied to the stomach in the anatomy of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the esophageal defense mechanisms involved in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the types of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) dysfunction associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of delayed gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the pathophysiologic relationship between hiatal hernia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How does obesity contribute to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Why does a high BMI contribute to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the etiologic effector of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the most common cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How common is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the US?

Is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) more common in men or women?

What are the age-related demographics for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How common is esophagitis as a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

When is long-term maintenance therapy indicated in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

When is surgery indicated for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What were the results of the LOTUS trial on antireflux therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) treated in young patients?

What is the prognosis associated with surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is esophagitis diagnosed and graded in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are strictures in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the workup and treatment indications for strictures in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the most serious complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of Barrett esophagus in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the treatment for Barrett esophagus in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Presentation

What are the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the ACG guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which symptoms should prompt an evaluation for delayed gastric emptying in the assessment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are some complications associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the most common symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the characteristics of regurgitation in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the characteristics of dysphagia in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What causes coughing or wheezing in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is hoarseness caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the most common cause of noncardiac chest pain?

What are some atypical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

DDX

What are the categories of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the diagnostic considerations for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the diagnostic considerations for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in pregnant patients?

What are the differential diagnoses for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

Workup

Which studies are used in the primary workup of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the secondary studies used in the workup of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of EGD in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of esophageal manometry in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the indications for esophageal manometry and prolonged pH monitoring in the workup of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which study is the criterion standard for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which imaging studies are used in the workup of suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How does delayed gastric emptying manifest in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy used in the workup of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Why is gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy more commonly used in infants and children for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of intraluminal esophageal electrical impedance (EEI) in the workup of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Treatment

What is the treatment approach for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the types of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and how do the treatments differ?

What is the purpose of a gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Questionnaire (GerdQ)?

Which lifestyle modifications are used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the benefits of lifestyle modifications for the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which lifestyle modifications are indicated in pregnant patients in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of antacids in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the first-line medications for the treatment of mild to moderate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How effective are H2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the strongest medication available for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are available for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How effective are prokinetic medications and reflux inhibitors for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is laparoscopic fundoplication used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are some historical surgical procedures used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the surgical treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the indications for fundoplication as a surgical treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Is surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) more effective than medical treatment?

How do surgical and medical therapies compare for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the essential elements of laparoscopic fundoplication for treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How long is the fundoplication procedure and recovery for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How effective is a laparoscopic fundoplication for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Why is laparoscopic fundoplication the preferred treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Is laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy an effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the LINX Reflux Management System used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of magnetic sphincter augmentation in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which medications in the drug class Antacids are used in the treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Prokinetics are used in the treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Proton Pump Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

Which medications in the drug class H2-Receptor Antagonists are used in the treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?