Hepatitis A Questions & Answers

Updated: May 08, 2019
  • Author: Richard K Gilroy, MBBS, FRACP; Chief Editor: BS Anand, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

When was hepatitis A virus (HAV) first identified?

What advancements have reduced the incidence of hepatitis A?

What is the virology of hepatitis A virus (HAV)?

What have phylogenetic and recombination analyses revealed about hepatitis A virus (HAV) genomes?

What is the pathophysiology of viral replication in hepatitis A virus (HAV)?

What is the most common means of transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV)?

What is the incubation period of hepatitis A virus (HAV)?

What are the risk factors for the acquisition of hepatitis A?

What has shifted the burden of hepatitis A?

What are the incidence and prevalence of hepatitis A in the US?

What are the age-related demographics of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV)?

What causes sporadic cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

What is the international prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV)?

Which risks are associated with an older age of acquisition in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

What are the sex-related demographics of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

What is the prognosis of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

What is the outcome of liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

What is the association between age and illness severity in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

Which populations have an increased risk of adverse sequelae caused by acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

What is the relationship between acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection and cholestasis and how is it characterized?

What are the rare complications of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

What mechanism is involved in autoimmune hepatitis after hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

How common is relapsing hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

What is the indication for liver transplantation in hepatitis A infection?

How should travelers be educated about hepatitis A?

How should patients with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection be educated?

Presentation

What should be included in the history of patients with suspected hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

What are the early symptoms of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

How is the icteric phase of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection characterized?

How is relapsing hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection characterized?

What is the focus of the physical exam in patients with suspected hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

What are the typical physical findings in patients with suspected hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

DDX

Which condition has a similar presentation as acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

Which conditions should be considered in the diagnosis of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

What are the differential diagnoses for Hepatitis A?

Workup

What is the gold standard for diagnosis of viremic stages of hepatitis A infection?

What are the approach considerations in the workup of hepatitis A?

What does a CBC reveal in the workup of hepatitis A?

What does a prothrombin time (PT) indicate in the workup of hepatitis A?

Which liver enzyme measurements are associated with hepatitis A?

Which hepatic synthetic function measurements are consistent with hepatitis A?

What is the role of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM testing in the workup of hepatitis A?

What is the role of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgG in the workup of hepatitis A?

When is ultrasonography indicated in the workup of hepatitis A?

What are histologic findings in hepatitis A?

Treatment

What is the treatment for hepatitis A?

Which patients should undergo immunization for hepatitis A virus (HAV)?

Should hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination be provided to patients with autoimmune liver disease?

Which therapeutic agents are available for the treatment of hepatitis A virus (HAV)?

What does supportive care for hepatitis A consist of?

Which patients with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection are candidates for liver transplantation and what are the considerations?

What are the recommendations for prophylaxis against hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection?

How effective is the hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination?

When in immunization against hepatitis A indicated?

What factors are associated with changes in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection rates?

What are the benefits of hepatitis A vaccination?

What dietary recommendations are indicated in the treatment of hepatitis A?

What activity restrictions are indicated in the treatment of hepatitis A?

How is hepatitis A prevented?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment forhepatitis A?

What is the maximum dosage of acetaminophen in the treatment of hepatitis A?

Which medications in the drug class Immune globulins are used in the treatment of Hepatitis A?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines, viral, prevention are used in the treatment of Hepatitis A?

Which medications in the drug class Antiemetics are used in the treatment of Hepatitis A?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesic agents are used in the treatment of Hepatitis A?