Toxic Megacolon Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 16, 2021
  • Author: Fadi Alali, MD; Chief Editor: Burt Cagir, MD, FACS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is toxic megacolon?

What conditions should be differentiated from toxic megacolon?

What is the pathophysiology of toxic megacolon?

What are inflammatory causes of toxic megacolon?

What are infectious causes of toxic megacolon?

What are other etiologies of toxic megacolon?

Which factors increase the risk for toxic megacolon?

What is the prevalence of toxic megacolon?

What is the incidence of toxic megacolon in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and C difficile colitis?

What is the prognosis of toxic megacolon?

What should patient education about toxic megacolon include?

Presentation

What is the clinical presentation of toxic megacolon?

What physical examination findings may be seen in toxic megacolon?

What are peritoneal signs of perforation in toxic megacolon?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Toxic Megacolon?

Workup

What should cause clinicians to suspect the diagnosis of toxic megacolon?

What is the role of complete blood cell (CBC) count in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon?

What are the roles of chemistry, nutrition, and coagulation panels in the workup of toxic megacolon?

What is the role of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon?

What are characteristic histologic findings of toxic megacolon?

What is the role of radiography in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon?

What radiographic findings are characteristic of toxic megacolon?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon?

What is the role of endoscopy in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon?

What is the role of computed tomography (CT) scanning in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon?

Treatment

What should be considered in the treatment of toxic megacolon?

What is involved in the medical management of colitis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)?

What is involved in the medical management of C difficile colitis?

What are other potential medical therapies for treatment of toxic megacolon?

Which special populations should considered in the treatment of toxic megacolon?

What are indications for surgery in patients with inflammatory disease (IBD)-related colitis?

What are indications for surgery in patients with C difficile colitis?

Medications

What types of medications may be used in the treatment of toxic megacolon, and which agents should be avoided?

Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulators are used in the treatment of Toxic Megacolon?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressant Agents are used in the treatment of Toxic Megacolon?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Toxic Megacolon?