Toxic Megacolon Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 01, 2018
  • Author: Brian Lin; Chief Editor: Burt Cagir, MD, FACS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What are the diagnostic criteria for toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Which conditions are associated with toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What are serious complications of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is the pathophysiology of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What are the inflammatory causes of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What are the infectious causes of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Which conditions cause toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Which factors increase the risk for toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is the prevalence of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Which patient groups are at highest risk for toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is the prognosis of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is included in patient education about toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What are the diagnostic criteria for toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What are the signs of perforation in toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Toxic Megacolon?

Workup

What is the role of complete blood count (CBC) in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is the role of chemistry panel in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is the role of nutrition and coagulation panels in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is the role of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is the role of radiography in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What radiographic findings are characteristic of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is the role of endoscopy in the diagnosis of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Treatment

How is toxic megacolon (toxic colitis) treated?

What is the role of cyclosporine in the treatment of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Which new therapies are being investigated for the treatment for toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is the role of colectomy in the treatment of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Why is subtotal colectomy the preferred surgical treatment for toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

How is total proctocolectomy performed in the treatment of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

What is included in informed consent for surgery to treat toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of toxic megacolon (toxic colitis)?

Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulators are used in the treatment of Toxic Megacolon?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressant Agents are used in the treatment of Toxic Megacolon?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Toxic Megacolon?