Reading Learning Disorder Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Oct 15, 2021
  • Author: Eric R Crouch, MD; Chief Editor: Caroly Pataki, MD  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Developmental delays can occur in various genetic syndromes. Genetics conditions, such as Sotos, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, should be ruled out. The coarse features and corneal clouding of mucopolysaccharidoses should also be excluded as poor academic performance can be associated with developmental delays. Metabolic conditions should also be considered, such as hypothyroidism and diabetes. Agenesis of the corpus callosum, optic nerve hypoplasia, and septo-optic dysplasia should be ruled out as part of multi-disciplinary evaluation. The pediatric neurologist can determine if ventriculomegaly or neurodegenerative disorders are present.

Convergence insufficiency disorders should be ruled out in the evaluation of a child with poor or delayed reading and prescribed orthoptic treatment as initial treatment of any convergence insufficiency.