Spinal Stenosis Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 05, 2018
  • Author: John K Hsiang, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Stephen Kishner, MD, MHA  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

How does spinal stenosis develop?

What is lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)?

What results from stenosis of the central cervical and thoracic spine?

What can result from lateral canal stenosis?

What is the role of neuronal studies in the diagnosis of spinal stenosis?

What is the goal of imaging in the management of spinal stenosis?

What are treatment options for spinal stenosis?

What is the relevant anatomy in central canal stenosis?

What is the relevant anatomy in lateral recess stenosis?

What is the relevant anatomy in cervical stenosis?

What is the relevant anatomy in thoracic spinal stenosis?

What is the relevant anatomy in lumbar spinal stenosis?

What is the pathophysiology of spinal stenosis?

What induces segment instability in the pathophysiology of spinal stenosis?

What are the mechanisms for the development of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)?

What are the mechanisms for development of neurogenic claudication (NC) in spinal stenosis?

What causes primary spinal stenosis?

Which developmental flaws cause spinal stenosis?

What causes secondary (acquired) spinal stenosis?

What skeletal conditions cause spinal stenosis?

What is the prevalence of spinal stenosis?

What is the prognosis of spinal stenosis?

What is the prognosis of spinal canal stenosis?

What is the prognosis of central spinal stenosis?

What is the prognosis of lateral spinal stenosis (LSS)?

What is included in patient education for spinal stenosis?

Presentation

What is the clinical manifestation of spinal stenosis?

What are the signs and symptoms of cervical spinal stenosis?

What are the signs and symptoms of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)?

What are the physical findings characteristic of cervical spinal stenosis?

What are the physical findings characteristic of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)?

What are the signs and symptoms of vascular claudication in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of spinal stenosis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Spinal Stenosis?

Workup

Which neuronal studies are performed in the workup of spinal stenosis?

What is the role of spinal imaging in the diagnosis and management of spinal stenosis?

What are the American College of Physicians (ACP) guidelines for use of imaging in the diagnosis of spinal stenosis?

Treatment

What are the aims of treatment for spinal stenosis?

What are conservative treatment options for spinal stenosis?

What is the role of interventional radiology in the treatment of spinal stenosis?

What is the prevalence of myelopathy in cervical spinal stenosis?

What is the efficacy for surgery for spinal stenosis?

Which medications are used in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)?

What is the role of tricyclic antidepressants in the treatment of spinal stenosis?

What is the role of oral opioids in the treatment of spinal stenosis?

What is the role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of spinal stenosis?

What is the efficacy of pharmacologic therapy for spinal stenosis?

What is the role of epidural steroid injection (ESI) in the treatment of spinal stenosis?

How are caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) administered for the treatment of spinal stenosis?

How are interlaminar epidural steroid injection (ESI) administered for the treatment of spinal stenosis?

When is transforaminal epidural steroid injection (ESI) indicated for the treatment of spinal stenosis?

When is bilateral epidural steroid injection (ESI) indicated for the treatment of spinal stenosis?

How does anticoagulation therapy affect the treatment of spinal stenosis?

What are contraindications for epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the treatment of spinal stenosis?

What are possible complications of epidural steroid injection (ESI)-for treatment of spinal stenosis?

What is the efficacy of epidural steroid injection (ESI) for treatment of spinal stenosis?

What is the role of physical therapy for spinal stenosis?

What is the efficacy of surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)?

When is surgery indicated for the treatment of spinal stenosis?

What are the North American Spine Society (NASS) guidelines for use of decompressive surgery to treat lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)?

What is the efficacy of decompression surgery in the treatment of spinal stenosis?

What are potential complications of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)?

What are potential complications following surgery for spinal stenosis?

What are risk factors for postoperative spondylolisthesis in spinal stenosis?

What are possible risk factors for reoperation in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)?

What is included in long-term care of patients with spinal stenosis?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of stenosis (LSS)?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Spinal Stenosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antidepressant, Tricyclic are used in the treatment of Spinal Stenosis?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsants are used in the treatment of Spinal Stenosis?

Which medications in the drug class Muscle Relaxants are used in the treatment of Spinal Stenosis?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics are used in the treatment of Spinal Stenosis?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs are used in the treatment of Spinal Stenosis?